The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1987-04

AUTHORS

Victor E. Camp, Peter R. Hooper, M. John Roobol, D. L. White

ABSTRACT

During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of basalt are defined by data point clusters on variation diagrams, i.e. the low-K, high-K, and hybrid types. All three erupted simultaneously. Their distribution is delineated in both scoria cones and lava flow units from detailed mapping and a petrochemical study of 135 samples. Six flow units, defined by distinct flow fronts, represent extrusive pulses. The high-K type erupted during all six pulses, the low-K type during the first three, and the hybrid type during the first two. Three mineral assemblages occur out of equilibrium in all three chemical types.Assemblage 1 contains resorbed olivine and clinopyroxene megacrysts and ultramafic microxenoliths (Fo90 + Cr spinel + Cr endiopside) which fractionated within the spinel zone of the mantle.Assemblage 2 contains resorbed plagioclase megacrysts (An60) with olivine inclusions (Fo78) which fractionated in the crust.Assemblage 3 contains microphenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine in a groundmass of the same minerals with late-crystallizing titansalite and titanomagnetite; assemblage 3 crystallized at the surface and/or in the upper crust. Each assemblage represents a distinct range in PTX environment, suggesting that their coexistence in each chemical type may be a function of magma mixing. Such a process is confirmed by variable ratios of incompatible element pairs in a range of analyses. All three chemical types are products of mixing. Some of the hybrid types may have developed from surface mixing of the low-K and high-K lavas; however, the occurrence of all three types at the vent system suggests that subsurface mixing was the dominant process. We suggest that the Madinah flow was extruded from a heterogeneous magma chamber containing vertically stacked sections equivalent to the six eruptive pulses. This chamber may have developed contemporaneously with magma mixing when a crustal reservoir containing a magma in equilibrium with assemblage 2 was invaded by a more primitive magma containing cognate microxenoliths and megacrysts of assemblage 1. More... »

PAGES

489-508

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1970-12. Olivine-liquid equilibrium in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1968-02. Jebel Khariz: an upper miocene strato-volcano of comenditic affinity on the South Arabian coast in BULLETIN VOLCANOLOGIQUE
  • 1971-06. Characteristics of some basaltic pyroclastics in BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY
  • 1978-03. Nature of alkalic volcanic rock series in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1985-09. A case of simple magma mixing in the Columbia River Basalt Group: The Wilbur Creek, Lapwai, and Asotin flows, Saddle Mountains Formation in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Bulletin of Volcanology

    ISSUE

    2

    VOLUME

    49

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01245475

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052825118


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0403", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Geology", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/04", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Earth Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Camp", 
            "givenName": "Victor E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.015047575307.58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015047575307.58"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Washington State University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30064.31", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Geology, Washington State University, 99 164, Pullman, WA, USA"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hooper", 
            "givenName": "Peter R.", 
            "id": "sg:person.012504536626.52", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012504536626.52"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Roobol", 
            "givenName": "M. John", 
            "id": "sg:person.07436205675.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07436205675.31"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "White", 
            "givenName": "D. L.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(80)80057-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000696672"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(81)90091-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002095156"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(81)90091-7", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002095156"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00376089", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005773421", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00376089"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-1946(75)90021-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019541271"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-1946(75)90021-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019541271"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596586", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025468012", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02596586"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596586", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025468012", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02596586"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00429428", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027919935", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00429428"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.138.3.0237", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031189382"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00371276", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038073294", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00371276"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1139/e71-055", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043803756"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596957", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050217165", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02596957"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(73)90090-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052556188"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(73)90090-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052556188"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821x(78)90130-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053734657"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821x(78)90130-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053734657"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1969.037.287.14", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064116718"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.258.9.664", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070840208"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.260.4.267", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070840300"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "1987-04", 
        "datePublishedReg": "1987-04-01", 
        "description": "During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of basalt are defined by data point clusters on variation diagrams, i.e. the low-K, high-K, and hybrid types. All three erupted simultaneously. Their distribution is delineated in both scoria cones and lava flow units from detailed mapping and a petrochemical study of 135 samples. Six flow units, defined by distinct flow fronts, represent extrusive pulses. The high-K type erupted during all six pulses, the low-K type during the first three, and the hybrid type during the first two. Three mineral assemblages occur out of equilibrium in all three chemical types.Assemblage 1 contains resorbed olivine and clinopyroxene megacrysts and ultramafic microxenoliths (Fo90 + Cr spinel + Cr endiopside) which fractionated within the spinel zone of the mantle.Assemblage 2 contains resorbed plagioclase megacrysts (An60) with olivine inclusions (Fo78) which fractionated in the crust.Assemblage 3 contains microphenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine in a groundmass of the same minerals with late-crystallizing titansalite and titanomagnetite; assemblage 3 crystallized at the surface and/or in the upper crust. Each assemblage represents a distinct range in PTX environment, suggesting that their coexistence in each chemical type may be a function of magma mixing. Such a process is confirmed by variable ratios of incompatible element pairs in a range of analyses. All three chemical types are products of mixing. Some of the hybrid types may have developed from surface mixing of the low-K and high-K lavas; however, the occurrence of all three types at the vent system suggests that subsurface mixing was the dominant process. We suggest that the Madinah flow was extruded from a heterogeneous magma chamber containing vertically stacked sections equivalent to the six eruptive pulses. This chamber may have developed contemporaneously with magma mixing when a crustal reservoir containing a magma in equilibrium with assemblage 2 was invaded by a more primitive magma containing cognate microxenoliths and megacrysts of assemblage 1.", 
        "genre": "research_article", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01245475", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": [
          {
            "id": "sg:journal.1051922", 
            "issn": [
              "0258-8900", 
              "1432-0819"
            ], 
            "name": "Bulletin of Volcanology", 
            "type": "Periodical"
          }, 
          {
            "issueNumber": "2", 
            "type": "PublicationIssue"
          }, 
          {
            "type": "PublicationVolume", 
            "volumeNumber": "49"
          }
        ], 
        "name": "The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types", 
        "pagination": "489-508", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "fb9f16989012cf115578d748168ad3de8b4faf36a91b73ee608dbec869bc43ad"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/bf01245475"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1052825118"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01245475", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052825118"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "articles", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-10T17:27", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8672_00000492.jsonl", 
        "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01245475"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    137 TRIPLES      21 PREDICATES      42 URIs      19 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01245475 schema:about anzsrc-for:04
    2 anzsrc-for:0403
    3 schema:author N42dfe906b168403684ad5a85b32d8f9c
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00371276
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00376089
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00429428
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596586
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596957
    9 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(81)90091-7
    10 https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821x(78)90130-9
    11 https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(73)90090-x
    12 https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-1946(75)90021-x
    13 https://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(80)80057-7
    14 https://doi.org/10.1139/e71-055
    15 https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.138.3.0237
    16 https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1969.037.287.14
    17 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.258.9.664
    18 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.260.4.267
    19 schema:datePublished 1987-04
    20 schema:datePublishedReg 1987-04-01
    21 schema:description During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of basalt are defined by data point clusters on variation diagrams, i.e. the low-K, high-K, and hybrid types. All three erupted simultaneously. Their distribution is delineated in both scoria cones and lava flow units from detailed mapping and a petrochemical study of 135 samples. Six flow units, defined by distinct flow fronts, represent extrusive pulses. The high-K type erupted during all six pulses, the low-K type during the first three, and the hybrid type during the first two. Three mineral assemblages occur out of equilibrium in all three chemical types.Assemblage 1 contains resorbed olivine and clinopyroxene megacrysts and ultramafic microxenoliths (Fo90 + Cr spinel + Cr endiopside) which fractionated within the spinel zone of the mantle.Assemblage 2 contains resorbed plagioclase megacrysts (An60) with olivine inclusions (Fo78) which fractionated in the crust.Assemblage 3 contains microphenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine in a groundmass of the same minerals with late-crystallizing titansalite and titanomagnetite; assemblage 3 crystallized at the surface and/or in the upper crust. Each assemblage represents a distinct range in PTX environment, suggesting that their coexistence in each chemical type may be a function of magma mixing. Such a process is confirmed by variable ratios of incompatible element pairs in a range of analyses. All three chemical types are products of mixing. Some of the hybrid types may have developed from surface mixing of the low-K and high-K lavas; however, the occurrence of all three types at the vent system suggests that subsurface mixing was the dominant process. We suggest that the Madinah flow was extruded from a heterogeneous magma chamber containing vertically stacked sections equivalent to the six eruptive pulses. This chamber may have developed contemporaneously with magma mixing when a crustal reservoir containing a magma in equilibrium with assemblage 2 was invaded by a more primitive magma containing cognate microxenoliths and megacrysts of assemblage 1.
    22 schema:genre research_article
    23 schema:inLanguage en
    24 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    25 schema:isPartOf Nb447d6d1789e48888f507e7b790debd0
    26 Nf5e5f7acbae44609b2ef251b0d90aa38
    27 sg:journal.1051922
    28 schema:name The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types
    29 schema:pagination 489-508
    30 schema:productId N03d7fb93b3d94802aada109babb07a95
    31 N2944ea9171ed4272a2c734fdce1350cd
    32 Ne538773e24cf4b699dfcebb270e648fd
    33 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052825118
    34 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01245475
    35 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-10T17:27
    36 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    37 schema:sdPublisher Nfa9deb74e93945f296e156e8b8c9eb3a
    38 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/BF01245475
    39 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    40 sgo:sdDataset articles
    41 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
    42 N03d7fb93b3d94802aada109babb07a95 schema:name dimensions_id
    43 schema:value pub.1052825118
    44 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    45 N2944ea9171ed4272a2c734fdce1350cd schema:name readcube_id
    46 schema:value fb9f16989012cf115578d748168ad3de8b4faf36a91b73ee608dbec869bc43ad
    47 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    48 N42dfe906b168403684ad5a85b32d8f9c rdf:first sg:person.015047575307.58
    49 rdf:rest N8d2653f7e1364613a676a3ccaa7c3357
    50 N7e90e9c1ea0e427a934f7585f415eb7e rdf:first sg:person.07436205675.31
    51 rdf:rest N88abe60778d040e39c56a1a142d0359c
    52 N88abe60778d040e39c56a1a142d0359c rdf:first Nf7c4ddb2e4184e36a1c9eebdd79683bd
    53 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    54 N8d2653f7e1364613a676a3ccaa7c3357 rdf:first sg:person.012504536626.52
    55 rdf:rest N7e90e9c1ea0e427a934f7585f415eb7e
    56 N982fa89739914a8da18242b628a22e48 schema:name Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia
    57 rdf:type schema:Organization
    58 Nafce2eb41ad34282a8b6c3fbc36f6c26 schema:name Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia
    59 rdf:type schema:Organization
    60 Nb447d6d1789e48888f507e7b790debd0 schema:volumeNumber 49
    61 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
    62 Ndc65a611ae954da086712519523f3470 schema:name Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources, Jiddah, Saudi Arabia
    63 rdf:type schema:Organization
    64 Ne538773e24cf4b699dfcebb270e648fd schema:name doi
    65 schema:value 10.1007/bf01245475
    66 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    67 Nf5e5f7acbae44609b2ef251b0d90aa38 schema:issueNumber 2
    68 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
    69 Nf7c4ddb2e4184e36a1c9eebdd79683bd schema:affiliation Ndc65a611ae954da086712519523f3470
    70 schema:familyName White
    71 schema:givenName D. L.
    72 rdf:type schema:Person
    73 Nfa9deb74e93945f296e156e8b8c9eb3a schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    74 rdf:type schema:Organization
    75 anzsrc-for:04 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    76 schema:name Earth Sciences
    77 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    78 anzsrc-for:0403 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    79 schema:name Geology
    80 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    81 sg:journal.1051922 schema:issn 0258-8900
    82 1432-0819
    83 schema:name Bulletin of Volcanology
    84 rdf:type schema:Periodical
    85 sg:person.012504536626.52 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30064.31
    86 schema:familyName Hooper
    87 schema:givenName Peter R.
    88 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012504536626.52
    89 rdf:type schema:Person
    90 sg:person.015047575307.58 schema:affiliation Nafce2eb41ad34282a8b6c3fbc36f6c26
    91 schema:familyName Camp
    92 schema:givenName Victor E.
    93 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015047575307.58
    94 rdf:type schema:Person
    95 sg:person.07436205675.31 schema:affiliation N982fa89739914a8da18242b628a22e48
    96 schema:familyName Roobol
    97 schema:givenName M. John
    98 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07436205675.31
    99 rdf:type schema:Person
    100 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00371276 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038073294
    101 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00371276
    102 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    103 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00376089 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005773421
    104 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00376089
    105 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    106 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00429428 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027919935
    107 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00429428
    108 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    109 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025468012
    110 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02596586
    111 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    112 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02596957 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050217165
    113 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02596957
    114 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    115 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(81)90091-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002095156
    116 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    117 https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821x(78)90130-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053734657
    118 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    119 https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-4937(73)90090-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052556188
    120 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    121 https://doi.org/10.1016/0079-1946(75)90021-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019541271
    122 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    123 https://doi.org/10.1016/0584-8547(80)80057-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000696672
    124 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    125 https://doi.org/10.1139/e71-055 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043803756
    126 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    127 https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.138.3.0237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031189382
    128 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    129 https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1969.037.287.14 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064116718
    130 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    131 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.258.9.664 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070840208
    132 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    133 https://doi.org/10.2475/ajs.260.4.267 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1070840300
    134 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    135 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.30064.31 schema:alternateName Washington State University
    136 schema:name Department of Geology, Washington State University, 99 164, Pullman, WA, USA
    137 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...