The Madinah eruption, Saudi Arabia: Magma mixing and simultaneous extrusion of three basaltic chemical types View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1987-04

AUTHORS

Victor E. Camp, Peter R. Hooper, M. John Roobol, D. L. White

ABSTRACT

During a 52-day eruption in 1256 A.D., 0.5 km3 of alkali-olivine basalt was extruded from a 2.25-km-long fissure at the north end of the Harrat Rahat lava field, Saudi Arabia. The eruption produced 6 scoria cones and a lava flow 23 km long that approached the ancient and holy city of Madinah to within 8 km. Three chemical types of basalt are defined by data point clusters on variation diagrams, i.e. the low-K, high-K, and hybrid types. All three erupted simultaneously. Their distribution is delineated in both scoria cones and lava flow units from detailed mapping and a petrochemical study of 135 samples. Six flow units, defined by distinct flow fronts, represent extrusive pulses. The high-K type erupted during all six pulses, the low-K type during the first three, and the hybrid type during the first two. Three mineral assemblages occur out of equilibrium in all three chemical types.Assemblage 1 contains resorbed olivine and clinopyroxene megacrysts and ultramafic microxenoliths (Fo90 + Cr spinel + Cr endiopside) which fractionated within the spinel zone of the mantle.Assemblage 2 contains resorbed plagioclase megacrysts (An60) with olivine inclusions (Fo78) which fractionated in the crust.Assemblage 3 contains microphenocrysts of plagioclase and olivine in a groundmass of the same minerals with late-crystallizing titansalite and titanomagnetite; assemblage 3 crystallized at the surface and/or in the upper crust. Each assemblage represents a distinct range in PTX environment, suggesting that their coexistence in each chemical type may be a function of magma mixing. Such a process is confirmed by variable ratios of incompatible element pairs in a range of analyses. All three chemical types are products of mixing. Some of the hybrid types may have developed from surface mixing of the low-K and high-K lavas; however, the occurrence of all three types at the vent system suggests that subsurface mixing was the dominant process. We suggest that the Madinah flow was extruded from a heterogeneous magma chamber containing vertically stacked sections equivalent to the six eruptive pulses. This chamber may have developed contemporaneously with magma mixing when a crustal reservoir containing a magma in equilibrium with assemblage 2 was invaded by a more primitive magma containing cognate microxenoliths and megacrysts of assemblage 1. More... »

PAGES

489-508

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1970-12. Olivine-liquid equilibrium in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1968-02. Jebel Khariz: an upper miocene strato-volcano of comenditic affinity on the South Arabian coast in BULLETIN VOLCANOLOGIQUE
  • 1971-06. Characteristics of some basaltic pyroclastics in BULLETIN OF VOLCANOLOGY
  • 1978-03. Nature of alkalic volcanic rock series in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • 1985-09. A case of simple magma mixing in the Columbia River Basalt Group: The Wilbur Creek, Lapwai, and Asotin flows, Saddle Mountains Formation in CONTRIBUTIONS TO MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY
  • Journal

    TITLE

    Bulletin of Volcanology

    ISSUE

    2

    VOLUME

    49

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf01245475

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01245475

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052825118


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