High resolution statistical estimation of seafloor morphology: Oblique and orthogonal fabric on the flanks of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 34°–35.5° S View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1995-06

AUTHORS

Gregory A. Neumann, Donald W. Forsyth

ABSTRACT

On the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) from 34°–35.5° S, three ridge segments span the 108 km distance between the Meteor Fracture Zone (FZ) and the Montevideo FZ. Each of these segments is perpendicular to the adjoining transforms. Magnetic isochrons in the southern half of the region are oblique to the spreading direction and are offset from the morphological expression of the plate boundary, revealing a transition from oblique to orthogonal spreading within the last 750,000 years. Changes in orientation and cross-sectional form of the rift valley, as modified by tectonic processes, are preserved in the off-axis abyssal-hill fabric. We present a new statistical method for describing size and orientation of abyssal hills based on local slopes. For a given offset, the range of sorted slopes from the first to third quartile provides a robust estimate of topographic variability. The variability can be parametrized by azimuthal direction, plan-view aspect ratio, characteristic height and width. We resolve lineation azimuth within 6°, and characteristic height, width and aspect ratio within 20–30%, using 18 by 21 km sample boxes crossed by multiple Sea Beam swaths covering approximately 30% of the box. In the northern portion of the survey, the azimuth is mainly ridge parallel, while in the southern portion, the azimuth rotates 23° clockwise from ridge strike. Characteristic height and width are greater in the southern half than in the northern half, while aspect ratios are lower. The asymmetry of quartiles about the median slope provides evidence that inward-facing normal faults bounding the rift valley are a significant source of topography. Fabric disrupted by migration of small-offset discontinuities has higher than average characteristic height. Characteristic height and width correlate positively with residual gravity, an indicator of crustal thinning. A residual gravity low, possibly the current focus of upwelling, coincides with a newly formed spreading axis. These correlations suggest that evolution of ridge geometry can be controlled by crust and mantle thermal structure. Either variation in magma supply, resulting in changes in stress normal to the ridge axis, or a major realignment of the Montevideo Transform, temporarily resulting in increased shear stress across newly activated faults, may have been responsible for changes in orientation and morphology of the spreading center. More... »

PAGES

221-250

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1995-04. High-resolution plate reconstruction of the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1988-09. A new view of the mid-ocean ridge from the behaviour of ridge-axis discontinuities in NATURE
  • 1988-09. Gravity anomalies of the ridge-transform system in the South Atlantic between 31 and 34.5° S: Upwelling centers and variations in crustal thickness in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1992-08. Ridge segmentation, faulting and crustal thickness in the Atlantic Ocean in NATURE
  • 1990-04. Evidence from gravity data for focusedmagmatic accretionalong the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in NATURE
  • 1992-12. The East Pacific Rise and its flanks 8–18° N: History of segmentation, propagation and spreading direction based on SeaMARC II and Sea Beam studies in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1988-03. Kane Fracture Zone in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1988-09. La région axiale de la dorsale sud-ouest indienne entre 53° est et 59° est: Son evolution depuis 10 Ma in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1990-11. Ridge jumps and propagations in the South Atlantic Ocean in NATURE
  • 1977-12. Are spreading centers perpendicular to their transform faults? in NATURE
  • 1988-12. High inside corners at ridge-transform intersections in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1990-11. Bathymetry of the mid-atlantic ridge, 24°-31°N: A map series in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1988-03. The morphology and tectonics of the Mark area from Sea Beam and Sea MARC I observations (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 23° N) in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1990-11. Hundreds of small volcanoes on the median valley floor of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 24–30° N in NATURE
  • 1991-02. Spreading rates, rift propagation, and fracture zone offset histories during the past 5 my on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge; 25°–27°30′ S and 31°–34°30′ S in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1991-02. The Mid-atlantic Ridge (31°S–34°30′S): Temporal and spatial variations of accretionary processes in MARINE GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH
  • 1991-07. Inverse square-root dependence of mid-ocean-ridge flank roughness on spreading rate in NATURE
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