Aging of polymer composite materials exposed to the conditions in outer space View Full Text


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Article Info

DATE

1994-07

AUTHORS

O. V. Startsev, E. F. Nikishin

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive investigation is made of glass, carbon, organic fiber-reinforced plastics, and epoxy-based hybrid composite materials employed in Salyut-type spacecraft which remained in space for up to 1501 1501 days. In particular, the properties, aging mechanism, and strain-strength variations in these materials due to exposure to the conditions in outer space were studied. After a series of tests were performed in space the standard strain and strength parameters as well as the mass, density, and thickness changes in the composite materials were estimated. Electron-microscopic and dynamic-mechanical analyses were performed, and the thermal expansion was estimated for a wide range of temperatures. The principal, dominant process occurring due to the continuous presence in outer space was found to be post-curing of the resin materials, which in turn affected the mechanical characteristics of the composite materials. After 456–1501 days in space the room-temperature strength of the composite materials (except for organic plastics) did not decrease, while at high temperatures it even increased. The post-curing and restructuring of some composite materials lowered their dynamic shear moduli in the glassy state of the resin. Due to consolidation of the surface layer of hybrid composite materials irradiated and subjected to thermal cycles, failure during bending varied from transverse fracture to delamination. The negative effect of the post-curing process was expressed as higher internal tension in the hybrid composite materials with different linear thermal expansion coefficients. The magnitude of this effect depended on the amplitude of the thermal cycles. The unprotected surface of the composites bombarded by atomic oxygen, microparticles, and space garbage were subjected to pickling and microerosion, the maximum effect occurring at the initial stage of exposure. Desorption of moisture and low-molecular products during the first 100–200 days of thermal cycling in the vacuum of near-earth orbit must be considered when estimating the total mass loss of composite materials. Data from microscopic, dynamic-mechanical, and other types of analyses revealed that the outer-space factors improved the supermolecular order of the resin volume, while the subsurface layer structure of the composite materials had loosened. Microcracks formed in the plastic's surface during 1501 days in outer space did not, in general, affect the mechanical parameters of the composite materials. Most of the observed effects of exposure to conditions in outer space were less pronounced for plastics protected by aluminum foil or other plastic coatings. The data obtained can be used for designing external elements of spacecraft by selecting materials with specified and predictable properties for long-term service. More... »

PAGES

338-346

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00617158

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00617158

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027842332


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