Structural controls and mechanisms of diffusion in natural silicate melts View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1985-04

AUTHORS

P. Henderson, J. Nolan, G. C. Cunningham, R. K. Lowry

ABSTRACT

The diffusion properties of Na, Cs, Ba, Fe and Eu ions have been determined experimentally for a pantellerite melt and of these ions plus Li, Mn and Co in pitchstone melt, using the radiotracer residual-activity method, and narrow platinum capillaries, over the temperature range 1,200–1,400° C. In addition, Eu diffusion in a basaltic and an andesitic melt was determined. Diffusion of all cations follows an Arrhenius relationship, activation energy values being high for diffusion in the pantellerite melt (e.g. Eu: 100 kcal mol−1) except in the case of Na (24.3 kcal mol−1). Activation energies of diffusion in the pitchstone melt are similar to values recorded earlier for andesitic and basaltic melts. The new data are used, along with previously published data for diffusion in other composition melts, to examine the compositional and structural controls on diffusion. The range of diffusivities shows a marked change with melt composition; over two orders of magnitude for a basaltic melt, and nearly four orders for a pantellerite melt (both at 1,300° C). Diffusivity of all cations (except Li and Na) correlates positively with the proportion of network modifying cations. In the case of Li and Na the correlation is negative but the diffusivity of these ions correlates positively with the proportion of Na or of Na + K ions in the bulk melt. Diffusion behaviour in the pantellerite melt departs from the relationships shown by the data for other melt compositions, which could be partly explained by trivalent ions (such as Fe) occupying network forming positions. The diffusivity of alkali metal ions is strongly dependent on ionic radius, but this is not the case with the divalent and trivalent ions; diffusivity of these ions remains relatively constant with change in radius but decreases with increase in ionic charge. A compensation diagram shows four distinct but parallel trends for the majority of the cations in four melt types but the data for Li and Na plot on a separate trend. This and the other relationships are used to elucidate possible mechanisms of diffusion. Exchange mechanisms appear to be common, with the preservation of local charge balance. Li and Na diffuse by a distinct mechanism which involves exchange of similar or identical ions. The diffusion behaviour of the smaller alkali metal ions is sufficiently distinct from all other cations to indicate that diffusion could be an important factor in the geochemical fractionation of the alkali elements.s More... »

PAGES

263-272

Journal

TITLE

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology

ISSUE

2-3

VOLUME

89

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00379459

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00379459

DIMENSIONS

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