Invertebrate introductions in marine habitats: two species of hydromedusae (Cnidaria) native to the Black Sea, Maeotias inexspectata and Blackfordia virginica, ... View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1995-04

AUTHORS

C. E. Mills, F. Sommer

ABSTRACT

The hydrozoans Maeotias inexspectata Ostroumoff, 1896 and Blackfordia virginica Mayer, 1910, believed to be native to the Black Sea (i.e. Sarmatic) and resident in a variety of estuarine habitats worldwide, were found as introduced species in the Petaluma River and Napa River, California, in 1992 and 1993. These rivers are mostly-estuarine tributaries that flow into north San Francisco Bay. Both species appeared to be well-established in this brackishwater habitat. Salinities at the collection sites were about 11‰ during the summer, rising to nearly 20‰ in the early autumn and falling to near 0‰ in the winter. Large numbers of all sizes of both species of medusae were observed and collected, indicating that the hydroid stages of the life cycles of the two are also well-established in these rivers. In the Petaluma River, populations of both species were at maximum in late July, with numbers of individuals declining through August and into September; the Napa River was sampled only in October, and at that time only B. virginica was found. Examination of full guts of M. inexspectata and B. virginica medusae revealed that both species had fed nearly exclusively on small crustaceans, principally barnacle nauplii, copepods and their eggs and nauplii, and crab zoea larvae (M. inexspectata only). All the M. inexspectata medusae were males, indicating that the population has probably developed from the introduction of perhaps only a single male polyp or polyp bud. In spite of its inability to reproduce sexually, this population appears to be maintained by the prodigious ability of the polyp to bud and reproduce asexually, and is fully capable of invading additional low-salinity habitats from its present Petaluma River site. Male and female B. virginica medusae were collected in both the Petaluma River and the Napa River, indicating that B. virginica may have been introduced by either the polyp or medusa stage (or both), but that multiple individuals (of both sexes) must have arrived from another port in one or more invasions. As indicated for M. inexspectata, the B. virginica population will also probably seed new populations in San Francisco Bay and elsewhere. Based on its cnidome as well as the morphology of both medusa and polyp, M. inexspectata has been reclassified by moving it from the family Olindiidae, Limnomedusae, to the family Moerisiidae, Anthomedusae. More... »

PAGES

279-288

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00348941

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00348941

DIMENSIONS

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