Surface deformation at the Krafla volcano, North Iceland, 1982–1992 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1994-05

AUTHORS

Eysteinn Tryggvason

ABSTRACT

Extensive measurements of ground deformation at the Krafla volcano, Iceland, have been made since the beginning in 1975 of a series of eruptions and intrusions into the fissure system that extends north and south of the volcano. I concentrate on measurements before and after the eruption of September 1984, the last event of this series when the largest volume of lava was erupted. The patterns of ground deformation associated with the 1984 eruption, determined by precision levelling, electronic distance measurements and lake level observations, were similar to earlier intrusions and eruptions, in that the surface of the volcano subsided and the fissure system widened as magma moved laterally from a shallow central reservoir into the fissure system. The shallow magma reservoir of Krafla continued to expand for about five years after the eruption, but a slow subsidence of the central area began in 1989. Besides the presence of an inflating and deflating shallow magma reservoir at a depth of 2.5 km beneath the Krafla caldera, another inflating magma reservoir may exist at much greater depth below Krafla. The accumulation of compressive strain by numerous rift intrusions and eruptions since 1975 along the flanks of the north-south Krafla fissure swarm is being released slowly and will probably be reflected in the results of deformation measurements near Krafla for the next several decades. The total horizontal extension of the Krafla rift system in 1975–1984 was about 9 m, equal to about 500 years of constant plate divergence. The extension is twice the accumulated divergence since previous rifting events and eruptions in 1724–1729 More... »

PAGES

98-107

References to SciGraph publications

Journal

TITLE

Bulletin of Volcanology

ISSUE

2

VOLUME

56

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00304105

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00304105

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005043351


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