Location of the genes coding for 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA in the human genome View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1974-12

AUTHORS

H. J. Evans, R. A. Buckland, Mary Lou Pardue

ABSTRACT

3H-rRNA obtained from Xenopus laevis tissue cultured cells, or a 3H-cRNA made from Xenopus ribosomal DNA, was used for heterologous in situ hybridisation with human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomes. Prior to hybridisation, chromosome spreads were stained with Quinacrine and selected cells showing good Q-banding photographed; the same cells were then rephotographed after autoradiography and pairs of photographs for each cell were used to make dual karyotypes. The chromosomes within each karyotype were divided into equal sized segments (approx. 0.7 μ), with a fixed number of segments for each chromosome type. The distribution of silver grains between segments showed that the 3H-RNAs hybridised specifically to the nucleolar organising regions of the D and G group chromosomes with no other sites of localised labelling in the complement. Control experiments showed no localisation, with insignificant labelling, when metaphase spreads were incubated in a mixture containing Xenopus3H-rRNA and competing cold human (HeLa) rRNA. Filter hybridisation experiments on isolated human DNA showed that the Xenopus derived 3H-RNAs hybridised to a fraction of human DNA which was on the heavy side of the main DNA peak and that these RNAs were competed out in the presence of excess cold human rRNA, confirming the specificity of the heterologous hybridisation. In situ hybridisation experiments were also carried out on cells from individuals with one chromosome pair showing heteromorphism for either a very long stalk (nucleolar constriction) subtending a satellite, or a large satellite. It was shown that the chromosome with the large stalk hybridised four times as much 3H-rRNA as its homologue, whereas differences in the sizes of the subtended satellites did not materially affect hybridisation levels indicating that rDNA is located in the stalks and not the satellites. The amount of 3H-rRNA hybridised differs between chromosomes and individuals; these differences are heritable and rDNA can be detected by in situ hybridisation in all three chromosomes number 21 in cells from Down's patients and in translocated chromosomes conta.ining a nucleolar constriction. Different D and G group chromosomes which hybridised equal amounts of 3H-rRNA participated in rosette associations at metaphase in a random fashion in some individuals and in a non-random fashion in others. In all individuals studied chromosomes with large amounts of rDNA were not found to be preferentially involved in association. It was therefore concluded that the probability of a chromosome being involved in the formation of a common nucleolus is not a simple function of its rDNA content and other possible factors are considered. More... »

PAGES

405-426

Journal

TITLE

Chromosoma

ISSUE

4

VOLUME

48

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00290996

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00290996

DIMENSIONS

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46 schema:description 3H-rRNA obtained from Xenopus laevis tissue cultured cells, or a 3H-cRNA made from Xenopus ribosomal DNA, was used for heterologous in situ hybridisation with human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomes. Prior to hybridisation, chromosome spreads were stained with Quinacrine and selected cells showing good Q-banding photographed; the same cells were then rephotographed after autoradiography and pairs of photographs for each cell were used to make dual karyotypes. The chromosomes within each karyotype were divided into equal sized segments (approx. 0.7 μ), with a fixed number of segments for each chromosome type. The distribution of silver grains between segments showed that the 3H-RNAs hybridised specifically to the nucleolar organising regions of the D and G group chromosomes with no other sites of localised labelling in the complement. Control experiments showed no localisation, with insignificant labelling, when metaphase spreads were incubated in a mixture containing Xenopus3H-rRNA and competing cold human (HeLa) rRNA. Filter hybridisation experiments on isolated human DNA showed that the Xenopus derived 3H-RNAs hybridised to a fraction of human DNA which was on the heavy side of the main DNA peak and that these RNAs were competed out in the presence of excess cold human rRNA, confirming the specificity of the heterologous hybridisation. In situ hybridisation experiments were also carried out on cells from individuals with one chromosome pair showing heteromorphism for either a very long stalk (nucleolar constriction) subtending a satellite, or a large satellite. It was shown that the chromosome with the large stalk hybridised four times as much 3H-rRNA as its homologue, whereas differences in the sizes of the subtended satellites did not materially affect hybridisation levels indicating that rDNA is located in the stalks and not the satellites. The amount of 3H-rRNA hybridised differs between chromosomes and individuals; these differences are heritable and rDNA can be detected by in situ hybridisation in all three chromosomes number 21 in cells from Down's patients and in translocated chromosomes conta.ining a nucleolar constriction. Different D and G group chromosomes which hybridised equal amounts of 3H-rRNA participated in rosette associations at metaphase in a random fashion in some individuals and in a non-random fashion in others. In all individuals studied chromosomes with large amounts of rDNA were not found to be preferentially involved in association. It was therefore concluded that the probability of a chromosome being involved in the formation of a common nucleolus is not a simple function of its rDNA content and other possible factors are considered.
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