A guide to the use of pore-forming toxins for controlled permeabilization of cell membranes View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1993-09

AUTHORS

Sucharit Bhakdi, Ulrich Weller, Iwan Walev, Edith Martin, Daniel Jonas, Michael Palmer

ABSTRACT

Summary and ConclusionsDepending on the size of the pores one wishes to produce in plasma membranes, the choice will probably fall on one of the three toxins discussed above. S. aureus α-toxin should be tried first when pores of 1–1.5 nm diameter are required. This is generally the case when Ca2+ and nucleotide dependence of a given process is being studied. If α-toxin does not work, this is probably due to the fact that the toxin either does not produce pores, or that the pores are too small. In this case, high concentrations of α-toxin should be tried. If this still does not work, we recommend the use of HlyA. When very large pores are to be created, e.g. for introduction of antibodies into the cells, SLO or another member of this toxin family are the agents of choice. SLO preparations need to be checked for presence of protease contaminants. Tetanolysin currently offers advantages since it is protease-free, and the size of the pores can probably be controlled by varying the toxin dose. Methods for assessing the size of pores created by such agents have been published in the recent literature, and the appropriate papers can be consulted whenever the need arises. More... »

PAGES

167-175

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00219946

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00219946

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001598213

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8232069


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1103", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Clinical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacterial Proteins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Bacterial Toxins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cell Membrane", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cell Membrane Permeability", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Escherichia coli Proteins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Hemolysin Proteins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Streptolysins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Bhakdi", 
        "givenName": "Sucharit", 
        "id": "sg:person.01346465306.57", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01346465306.57"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Weller", 
        "givenName": "Ulrich", 
        "id": "sg:person.01254724620.89", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01254724620.89"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Walev", 
        "givenName": "Iwan", 
        "id": "sg:person.0676473464.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0676473464.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Martin", 
        "givenName": "Edith", 
        "id": "sg:person.01100243502.09", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01100243502.09"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Jonas", 
        "givenName": "Daniel", 
        "id": "sg:person.01044741250.24", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044741250.24"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5802.f", 
          "name": [
            "Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Palmer", 
        "givenName": "Michael", 
        "id": "sg:person.01334037312.17", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01334037312.17"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00330494", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015134311", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00330494"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334104", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017680519", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00334104"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00262320", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002984582", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00262320"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/351759a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045618190", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/351759a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1993-09", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1993-09-01", 
    "description": "Summary and ConclusionsDepending on the size of the pores one wishes to produce in plasma membranes, the choice will probably fall on one of the three toxins discussed above. S. aureus \u03b1-toxin should be tried first when pores of 1\u20131.5 nm diameter are required. This is generally the case when Ca2+ and nucleotide dependence of a given process is being studied. If \u03b1-toxin does not work, this is probably due to the fact that the toxin either does not produce pores, or that the pores are too small. In this case, high concentrations of \u03b1-toxin should be tried. If this still does not work, we recommend the use of HlyA. When very large pores are to be created, e.g. for introduction of antibodies into the cells, SLO or another member of this toxin family are the agents of choice. SLO preparations need to be checked for presence of protease contaminants. Tetanolysin currently offers advantages since it is protease-free, and the size of the pores can probably be controlled by varying the toxin dose. Methods for assessing the size of pores created by such agents have been published in the recent literature, and the appropriate papers can be consulted whenever the need arises.", 
    "genre": "article", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00219946", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": [
      {
        "id": "sg:journal.1014962", 
        "issn": [
          "0300-8584", 
          "1432-1831"
        ], 
        "name": "Medical Microbiology and Immunology", 
        "publisher": "Springer Nature", 
        "type": "Periodical"
      }, 
      {
        "issueNumber": "4", 
        "type": "PublicationIssue"
      }, 
      {
        "type": "PublicationVolume", 
        "volumeNumber": "182"
      }
    ], 
    "keywords": [
      "agent of choice", 
      "aureus \u03b1", 
      "toxin dose", 
      "introduction of antibodies", 
      "such agents", 
      "appropriate papers", 
      "toxin", 
      "SLO preparations", 
      "pore-forming toxins", 
      "agents", 
      "recent literature", 
      "dose", 
      "cell membrane", 
      "antibodies", 
      "high concentrations", 
      "cases", 
      "toxin family", 
      "tetanolysin", 
      "Ca2", 
      "cells", 
      "plasma membrane", 
      "use", 
      "SLO", 
      "membrane", 
      "summary", 
      "nucleotide dependence", 
      "HlyA.", 
      "choice", 
      "presence", 
      "concentration", 
      "need", 
      "family", 
      "literature", 
      "permeabilization", 
      "size", 
      "members", 
      "guide", 
      "diameter", 
      "preparation", 
      "introduction", 
      "method", 
      "fact", 
      "protease contaminants", 
      "advantages", 
      "contaminants", 
      "one", 
      "process", 
      "pore ones", 
      "dependence", 
      "pores", 
      "large pores", 
      "size of pores", 
      "paper", 
      "ConclusionsDepending", 
      "use of HlyA."
    ], 
    "name": "A guide to the use of pore-forming toxins for controlled permeabilization of cell membranes", 
    "pagination": "167-175", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1001598213"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/bf00219946"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "8232069"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00219946", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001598213"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "articles", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T18:06", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/article/article_262.jsonl", 
    "type": "ScholarlyArticle", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00219946"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00219946'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00219946'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00219946'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00219946'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

196 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      93 URIs      81 LITERALS      14 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00219946 schema:about N064f380747c24d5d8c06e802b1713439
2 N66ebe33223fb47159e4592c6b9012eb4
3 N6e4c1e68497a404d89a58a6fa6d6882d
4 N8cb447d50cf04a9d9bb588645c3f0036
5 Nc05745d6324a4ce3aa7f28919bdab0cd
6 Ne3a0be6105904c7983a0529849d2d92e
7 Nf6fc1ee05c6c47bf9842f24d48cceb4c
8 anzsrc-for:11
9 anzsrc-for:1103
10 schema:author Nbe6bb4c69790427baa6b6785bdb7bd01
11 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/bf00262320
12 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00330494
13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334104
14 sg:pub.10.1038/351759a0
15 schema:datePublished 1993-09
16 schema:datePublishedReg 1993-09-01
17 schema:description Summary and ConclusionsDepending on the size of the pores one wishes to produce in plasma membranes, the choice will probably fall on one of the three toxins discussed above. S. aureus α-toxin should be tried first when pores of 1–1.5 nm diameter are required. This is generally the case when Ca2+ and nucleotide dependence of a given process is being studied. If α-toxin does not work, this is probably due to the fact that the toxin either does not produce pores, or that the pores are too small. In this case, high concentrations of α-toxin should be tried. If this still does not work, we recommend the use of HlyA. When very large pores are to be created, e.g. for introduction of antibodies into the cells, SLO or another member of this toxin family are the agents of choice. SLO preparations need to be checked for presence of protease contaminants. Tetanolysin currently offers advantages since it is protease-free, and the size of the pores can probably be controlled by varying the toxin dose. Methods for assessing the size of pores created by such agents have been published in the recent literature, and the appropriate papers can be consulted whenever the need arises.
18 schema:genre article
19 schema:inLanguage en
20 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
21 schema:isPartOf N7548a9cbd61b4eab83eb3747d1809d8f
22 Nb32533912a0241b6aff4df24066349d9
23 sg:journal.1014962
24 schema:keywords Ca2
25 ConclusionsDepending
26 HlyA.
27 SLO
28 SLO preparations
29 advantages
30 agent of choice
31 agents
32 antibodies
33 appropriate papers
34 aureus α
35 cases
36 cell membrane
37 cells
38 choice
39 concentration
40 contaminants
41 dependence
42 diameter
43 dose
44 fact
45 family
46 guide
47 high concentrations
48 introduction
49 introduction of antibodies
50 large pores
51 literature
52 members
53 membrane
54 method
55 need
56 nucleotide dependence
57 one
58 paper
59 permeabilization
60 plasma membrane
61 pore ones
62 pore-forming toxins
63 pores
64 preparation
65 presence
66 process
67 protease contaminants
68 recent literature
69 size
70 size of pores
71 such agents
72 summary
73 tetanolysin
74 toxin
75 toxin dose
76 toxin family
77 use
78 use of HlyA.
79 schema:name A guide to the use of pore-forming toxins for controlled permeabilization of cell membranes
80 schema:pagination 167-175
81 schema:productId N06e78dfd87f3413d94443aad2acd1bf6
82 Nbad456c1fee84e3ea98466a23beea883
83 Nea04fcd6b1114496903dbe23a927e83d
84 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001598213
85 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00219946
86 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T18:06
87 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
88 schema:sdPublisher Nd964992e69024d54b3a0453ad2f309c3
89 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00219946
90 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
91 sgo:sdDataset articles
92 rdf:type schema:ScholarlyArticle
93 N064f380747c24d5d8c06e802b1713439 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
94 schema:name Hemolysin Proteins
95 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
96 N06e78dfd87f3413d94443aad2acd1bf6 schema:name doi
97 schema:value 10.1007/bf00219946
98 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
99 N46f34cccb6ac4f92926f550974b47d36 rdf:first sg:person.01100243502.09
100 rdf:rest Nbe7aab0fddbb437da65cf0979835dc62
101 N488c420cf13f433296725677b3082954 rdf:first sg:person.01254724620.89
102 rdf:rest Nf07490a00c0148278fb4c32b4036d95d
103 N66ebe33223fb47159e4592c6b9012eb4 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
104 schema:name Cell Membrane
105 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
106 N6e4c1e68497a404d89a58a6fa6d6882d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
107 schema:name Bacterial Proteins
108 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
109 N7548a9cbd61b4eab83eb3747d1809d8f schema:issueNumber 4
110 rdf:type schema:PublicationIssue
111 N8cb447d50cf04a9d9bb588645c3f0036 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
112 schema:name Bacterial Toxins
113 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
114 Nb32533912a0241b6aff4df24066349d9 schema:volumeNumber 182
115 rdf:type schema:PublicationVolume
116 Nbad456c1fee84e3ea98466a23beea883 schema:name dimensions_id
117 schema:value pub.1001598213
118 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
119 Nbe6bb4c69790427baa6b6785bdb7bd01 rdf:first sg:person.01346465306.57
120 rdf:rest N488c420cf13f433296725677b3082954
121 Nbe7aab0fddbb437da65cf0979835dc62 rdf:first sg:person.01044741250.24
122 rdf:rest Nfd1e41f305ac432f889a73c2032e885a
123 Nc05745d6324a4ce3aa7f28919bdab0cd schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
124 schema:name Escherichia coli Proteins
125 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
126 Nd964992e69024d54b3a0453ad2f309c3 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
127 rdf:type schema:Organization
128 Ne3a0be6105904c7983a0529849d2d92e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
129 schema:name Cell Membrane Permeability
130 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
131 Nea04fcd6b1114496903dbe23a927e83d schema:name pubmed_id
132 schema:value 8232069
133 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
134 Nf07490a00c0148278fb4c32b4036d95d rdf:first sg:person.0676473464.09
135 rdf:rest N46f34cccb6ac4f92926f550974b47d36
136 Nf6fc1ee05c6c47bf9842f24d48cceb4c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
137 schema:name Streptolysins
138 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
139 Nfd1e41f305ac432f889a73c2032e885a rdf:first sg:person.01334037312.17
140 rdf:rest rdf:nil
141 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
142 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 anzsrc-for:1103 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
145 schema:name Clinical Sciences
146 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
147 sg:journal.1014962 schema:issn 0300-8584
148 1432-1831
149 schema:name Medical Microbiology and Immunology
150 schema:publisher Springer Nature
151 rdf:type schema:Periodical
152 sg:person.01044741250.24 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
153 schema:familyName Jonas
154 schema:givenName Daniel
155 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01044741250.24
156 rdf:type schema:Person
157 sg:person.01100243502.09 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
158 schema:familyName Martin
159 schema:givenName Edith
160 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01100243502.09
161 rdf:type schema:Person
162 sg:person.01254724620.89 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
163 schema:familyName Weller
164 schema:givenName Ulrich
165 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01254724620.89
166 rdf:type schema:Person
167 sg:person.01334037312.17 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
168 schema:familyName Palmer
169 schema:givenName Michael
170 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01334037312.17
171 rdf:type schema:Person
172 sg:person.01346465306.57 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
173 schema:familyName Bhakdi
174 schema:givenName Sucharit
175 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01346465306.57
176 rdf:type schema:Person
177 sg:person.0676473464.09 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5802.f
178 schema:familyName Walev
179 schema:givenName Iwan
180 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0676473464.09
181 rdf:type schema:Person
182 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00262320 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002984582
183 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00262320
184 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
185 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00330494 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015134311
186 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00330494
187 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
188 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00334104 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017680519
189 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00334104
190 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
191 sg:pub.10.1038/351759a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045618190
192 https://doi.org/10.1038/351759a0
193 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
194 grid-institutes:grid.5802.f schema:alternateName Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany
195 schema:name Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Mainz, D-55101, Augustusplatz, Mainz, Germany
196 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...