On the existence and the role of chaotic processes in the nervous system View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1992-09

AUTHORS

B. Doyon

ABSTRACT

Chaos theory is a rapidly growing field. As a technical term, "chaos" refers to deterministic but unpredictable processes being sensitively dependent upon initial conditions. Neurobiological models and experimental results are very complicated and some research groups have tried to pursue the "neuronal chaos". Babloyantz's group has studied the fractal dimension (d) of electroencephalograms (EEG) in various physiological and pathological states. From deep sleep (d = 4) to full awakening (d > 8), a hierarchy of "strange" attractors paralles the hierarchy of states of consciousness. In epilepsy (petit mal), despite the turbulent aspect of a seizure, the attractor dimension was near to 2. In Creutzfeld-Jacob disease, the regular EEG activity corresponded to an attractor dimension less than the one measured in deep sleep. Is it healthy to be chaotic? An "active desynchronisation" could be favourable to a physiological system. Rapp's group reported variations of fractal dimension according to particular tasks. During a mental arithmetic task, this dimension increased. In another task, a P300 fractal index decreased when a target was identified. It is clear that the EEG is not representing noise. Its underlying dynamics depends on only a few degrees of freedom despite yet it is difficult to compute accurately the relevant parameters. What is the cognitive role of such a chaotic dynamics? Freeman has studied the olfactory bulb in rabbits and rats for 15 years. Multi-electrode recordings of a few mm2 showed a chaotic hierarchy from deep anaesthesia to alert state. When an animal identified a previously learned odour, the fractal dimension of the dynamics dropped off (near limit cycles).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) More... »

PAGES

113-119

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00168140

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00168140

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PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1462729


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