Molecular evolutionary characterization of an Activator (Ac)-like transposable element sequence from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) (Poaceae) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1994-01

AUTHORS

Amy F. MacRae, Gavin A. Huttley, Michael T. Clegg

ABSTRACT

We present data on the evolution of the Ac/Ds family of transposable elements in select grasses (Poaceae). A defective Ac-like element was cloned from a DNA library of the grass Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) and its entire 4531 bp sequence has been determined. When the pearl millet Ac-like sequence is aligned with the maize Ac sequence, it is found that there is approximately 70% DNA similarity in the central region spanning most of maize Ac exon II and all of exon III. In addition, there are two smaller regions of similarity at the Ac terminii. Besides these three major structural similarities, Pennisetum Ac has two large regions, one 5' and one 3', that show little similarity to Zea Ac. Furthermore, most of the sequences corresponding to intron II in maize Ac are absent in pearl millet Ac. Kimura's evolutionary distance between the central region of maize and pearl millet Ac sequences is estimated to be 0.429 +/- 0.020 nucleotide substitutions per site. This value is not significantly different from the average number of synonymous substitutions for coding regions of the Adh1 gene between maize and pearl millet, which is 0.395 +/- 0.051 nucleotide substitutions per site. If we assume Ac and Adh1 divergence times are equivalent between maize and pearl millet, then the above calculations suggest Ac-like sequences have probably not been strongly constrained by natural selection. Conserved DNA and amino acid sequence motifs are also examined. The level of DNA sequence divergence between maize and pearl millet Ac sequences, the estimated date when maize and pearl millet diverged (25-40 million years ago), coupled with their reproductive isolation/lack of current genetic exchange, all support the theory that Ac-like sequences have not been recently introduced into pearl millet from maize. Instead, Ac-like sequences were probably present in the progenitor of maize and pearl millet and have thus existed in the grasses for at least 25 million years. More... »

PAGES

77-89

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00163756

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00163756

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012619930

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7958939


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47 schema:description We present data on the evolution of the Ac/Ds family of transposable elements in select grasses (Poaceae). A defective Ac-like element was cloned from a DNA library of the grass Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet) and its entire 4531 bp sequence has been determined. When the pearl millet Ac-like sequence is aligned with the maize Ac sequence, it is found that there is approximately 70% DNA similarity in the central region spanning most of maize Ac exon II and all of exon III. In addition, there are two smaller regions of similarity at the Ac terminii. Besides these three major structural similarities, Pennisetum Ac has two large regions, one 5' and one 3', that show little similarity to Zea Ac. Furthermore, most of the sequences corresponding to intron II in maize Ac are absent in pearl millet Ac. Kimura's evolutionary distance between the central region of maize and pearl millet Ac sequences is estimated to be 0.429 +/- 0.020 nucleotide substitutions per site. This value is not significantly different from the average number of synonymous substitutions for coding regions of the Adh1 gene between maize and pearl millet, which is 0.395 +/- 0.051 nucleotide substitutions per site. If we assume Ac and Adh1 divergence times are equivalent between maize and pearl millet, then the above calculations suggest Ac-like sequences have probably not been strongly constrained by natural selection. Conserved DNA and amino acid sequence motifs are also examined. The level of DNA sequence divergence between maize and pearl millet Ac sequences, the estimated date when maize and pearl millet diverged (25-40 million years ago), coupled with their reproductive isolation/lack of current genetic exchange, all support the theory that Ac-like sequences have not been recently introduced into pearl millet from maize. Instead, Ac-like sequences were probably present in the progenitor of maize and pearl millet and have thus existed in the grasses for at least 25 million years.
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