Investigation of a Q-fever outbreak in Northern Italy View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:ScholarlyArticle     


Article Info

DATE

1996-08

AUTHORS

T. Manfredi Selvaggi, G. Rezza, M. Scagnelli, R. Rigoli, M. Rassu, F. De Lalla, G. P. Pellizzer, A. Tramarin, C. Bettini, L. Zampieri, M. Belloni, E. Dalla Pozza, S. Marangon, N. Marchiorettos, G. Togni, M. Giacobbo, A. Todescato, N. Binkin

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of a Q-fever epidemic through active case finding in the area of Vicenza (north-eastern Italy), and to identify risk factors for Q-fever in this outbreak. METHODS: 1) Descriptive epidemiology; 2) Seroepidemiological survey; 3) Case-control study. 1) Epidemic curve and maps with the location of cases. Identification of the road followed by the flocks of sheep. 2) Cross-sectional study on humans and flocks of sheep tested for anti-Coxiella burnetii antibodies. 3) Cases were defined by the presence of fever > 38 degrees C plus serological confirmation. Controls were 94 apparently healthy individuals attending outpatient facilities for control visits or certification, group-matched by geographical area, age and gender. A standardized questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate risk factors for Q-fever. RESULTS: A total 58 cases were identified in a 5-month period. Male to female ratio was 2.8:1; mean age was 42 years (range: 20-65 years). Twenty-eight patients (48%) were hospitalized. Fever was accompanied by asthenia (81%), headache (76%), chills (72%), and myalgia and arthralgia (53%); cough was present in 47% of patients. Rx abnormalities were found in 81% of the patients undergoing chest X-ray. Among 111 apparently healthy family members who underwent serological testing, four (3.6%) had antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. Three flocks which passed through the outbreak area between late May and early June were shown to be infected, with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 45 and 53%. The case-control study showed a significant association with exposure to flocks of sheep (Odds ratio = 6.1; 95% CI 2.5, 16.3). Other potential risk factors were not more commonly reported by cases with respect to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect exposure to flocks of sheep was a determinant of this outbreak of Q-fever. This finding suggests that transmission occurred through inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. The importance of control measures should be stressed in areas traversed by flocks of sheep. More... »

PAGES

403-408

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1985-06. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in patients requiring hospitalization in EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY & INFECTIOUS DISEASES
  • Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/bf00145305

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00145305

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017588571

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8891546


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    43 schema:description OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted to evaluate the extent of a Q-fever epidemic through active case finding in the area of Vicenza (north-eastern Italy), and to identify risk factors for Q-fever in this outbreak. METHODS: 1) Descriptive epidemiology; 2) Seroepidemiological survey; 3) Case-control study. 1) Epidemic curve and maps with the location of cases. Identification of the road followed by the flocks of sheep. 2) Cross-sectional study on humans and flocks of sheep tested for anti-Coxiella burnetii antibodies. 3) Cases were defined by the presence of fever > 38 degrees C plus serological confirmation. Controls were 94 apparently healthy individuals attending outpatient facilities for control visits or certification, group-matched by geographical area, age and gender. A standardized questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to evaluate risk factors for Q-fever. RESULTS: A total 58 cases were identified in a 5-month period. Male to female ratio was 2.8:1; mean age was 42 years (range: 20-65 years). Twenty-eight patients (48%) were hospitalized. Fever was accompanied by asthenia (81%), headache (76%), chills (72%), and myalgia and arthralgia (53%); cough was present in 47% of patients. Rx abnormalities were found in 81% of the patients undergoing chest X-ray. Among 111 apparently healthy family members who underwent serological testing, four (3.6%) had antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. Three flocks which passed through the outbreak area between late May and early June were shown to be infected, with prevalence of antibodies ranging between 45 and 53%. The case-control study showed a significant association with exposure to flocks of sheep (Odds ratio = 6.1; 95% CI 2.5, 16.3). Other potential risk factors were not more commonly reported by cases with respect to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect exposure to flocks of sheep was a determinant of this outbreak of Q-fever. This finding suggests that transmission occurred through inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. The importance of control measures should be stressed in areas traversed by flocks of sheep.
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