Polymorphisms in the Vitamin D Pathway in Relation to 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence: Application to Biomarkers View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2016

AUTHORS

Mohamed A. Abu el Maaty , Sally I. Hassanein , Mohamed Z. Gad

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency has become a globally acknowledged problem whose impact on societies has proven to surpass all medical expectations. Vitamin D is no longer peerlessly associated with bone diseases. In fact, collaborations of clinicians and researchers have yielded the undeniable truth, that is, the affiliation of this unconventional vitamin with diseases that are currently grasping the media’s attention like autoimmune diseases and cancers. Having established the importance of this phenomenon, assuming complete understanding of the association of vitamin D with one of the leading causes of death in the world, cardiovascular disease, is only mildly precise. Observational studies tend to highlight the association of low vitamin D levels with various forms of cardiovascular disease as well as with the risk factors associated, whereas interventional studies have been conflicting. Nonetheless, in vitro studies have identified the presence of nuclear vitamin D receptors in the cardiovascular system in cells such as cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, thereby warranting cardiovascular actions. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of vitamin D to beneficially modulate effectors of the cardiovascular system such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the nitric oxide system. While there appears to be abundance in the number of publications on the epidemiological and mechanistic association of the vitamin with the disease, studies aiming to investigate the genetic component of the relationship are sparse. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding proteins involved in the vitamin D pathway, whether synthesis, metabolism, or elimination, that are associated with circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the biomarker of vitamin D status, and thus it is conceptualized that such SNPs may act as novel genetic markers for cardiovascular disease since the disease has been associated with low levels of 25(OH)D. Several studies have investigated this hypothesis, yielding both positive and negative associations, highlighting the need for further investigations into the proposed triangular relationships between the SNPs, 25(OH)D levels, and the disease, which would spawn sound evidence prompting or discouraging professionals to extrapolate the findings to clinical genetic testing. More... »

PAGES

771-792

Book

TITLE

Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Disease

ISBN

978-94-007-7677-7
978-94-007-7678-4

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-94-007-7678-4_23

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7678-4_23

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024109109


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