First European Record of a Varanodontine (Synapsida: Varanopidae): Member of a Unique Early Permian Upland Paleoecosystem, Tambach Basin, Central Germany View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2014

AUTHORS

David S Berman , Amy C. Henrici , Stuart S. Sumida , Thomas Martens , Valerie Pelletier

ABSTRACT

A new genus and species of varanodontine varanopid, Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus, is described on the basis of the greater portion of the postcranium and a closely associated partial left dentary from the Lower Permian (Wolfcampian) Tambach Formation, the lowermost unit of the Upper Rotliegend, of the Bromacker locality in the midregion of the Thuringian Forest near Gotha, central Germany. Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus can be distinguished from all other varanopids on the basis of unique features of its vertebrae and unguals. A cladistic analysis of Varanopidae resolves T. unguifalcatus as nested within the varanodontines as the sister taxon of Varanops in a terminal dichotomy, which in turn forms the sister clade of the terminal dichotomy Varanodon+Watongia. The position of Aerosaurus is unaltered from previous analyses as the basal taxon of Varanodontinae. Elliotsmithia, which has been assigned alternately to both the varanodontines and the mycterosaurines, is resolved as a member of the latter. Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus is, therefore, the only varanodontine known from outside of North America. Within the Mycterosaurinae clade Mycterosaurus and Mesenosaurus resolve as a terminal dichotomy with Elliotsmithia and Heleosaurus related as successive sister taxa. As in previous analyses, Archaeovenator retains its position as the basal taxon of Varanopidae. Tambacarnifex unguifalcatus was an apex predator in a unique, heretofore undocumented Early Permian paleoecosystem in which the vertebrates were highly terrestrial inhabitants of an upland terrestrial setting, and constituted an early stage in the evolution of the modern terrestrial vertebrate trophic system, with herbivores greatly outnumbering apex predators in diversity, abundance, and biomass. More... »

PAGES

69-86

Book

TITLE

Early Evolutionary History of the Synapsida

ISBN

978-94-007-6840-6
978-94-007-6841-3

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-94-007-6841-3_5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-6841-3_5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043832536


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