Medicinal and aromatic plants: A case example of evolving secondary metabolome and biochemical pathway diversity View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2010

AUTHORS

Suman P. S. Khanuja , Tripta Jhang , Ajit Kumar Shasany

ABSTRACT

The unique capability of plants, in spite of being immobile in strict sense, to defend and respond precisely to environmental stresses whether biotic or abiotic is relatable to their ability to synthesize an array of phytochemicals as metabolites. We find these plants compounds useful for health care as nutraceuticals, drugs and medicines and even most attractive fragrances and flavors. This huge diversity of low molecular weight compounds is represented by secondary metabolites that confer the power of responding to stimuli in plants. Hence, the network of metabolic pathways in plant species represents the pool of functions and chemical diversity leading to biomolecules such as alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, glycosides, etc. Although the structures of approximately 50,000 such metabolites have already been elucidated, there are probably hundreds of thousands of such compounds which we are not able to detect or decipher within the existing limitation of detection. Only a few of these are part of ‘primary’ metabolic pathways (those common to all organisms). The rest are termed ‘secondary’ metabolites; this term is historical and was initially associated with inessentiality but we know today their necessity in defence to signals and stimuli.In the last decade, the research on plant secondary metabolism has been aiming to understand genetic basis from synthesis to regulation of plant compounds at molecular level. With these gene and genome studies, fascinating insights into the creation of genetic diversity of secondary metabolism have become evident. This has been leading to rising inquisition about the mechanisms of gene recruitment and diversification for novel functions. After more than 100 years of ignorance, biologists have reached a stage to recognize the causal connection between gene diversity and plasticity of secondary metabolism in its indispensable ecological role in the dynamic interactions of the plant kingdom with its continuously changing environment. Nevertheless, the complexities are many folds. The multitude of metabolites found in living organisms and the calculated, unexpected small number of genes identified during genome sequencing projects pose more questions to the biologists. Several processes on the posttranscriptional and posttranslational level lead to the formation of enzyme diversity through structural and functional variant forms explaining partially this surprising situation. Further, lower enzyme specificity may also contribute to metabolome diversity. The bottom-line is the evolution of these genes which may provide multiple forms and thereby leading to metabolic diversity even for any cause including adaptation. The situation of pathway diversity across species and genera breaks the conventional taxonomic barriers and brings in chemo-taxonomic basis as new dimension to explain the ever evolving metabolome and hence vertical to horizontal genomic flow for the natural combinatorial biological chemistry working in plant kingdom as no surprise. More... »

PAGES

355-368

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-81-8489-992-4_22

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-8489-992-4_22

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042055315


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