Tectonic Background of Four Hydrothermal Fields Along the Central Indian Ridge View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter      Open Access: True


Chapter Info

DATE

2015

AUTHORS

Kyoko Okino , Kentaro Nakamura , Hiroshi Sato

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of the Kairei hydrothermal field at the southernmost end of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) in 2000, only four active hydrothermal vent fields have subsequently been discovered. These four hydrothermal fields show remarkable diversity in the chemical compositions of fluids and associated ecosystems. Focused geophysical mapping and rock sampling indicate that different tectonic setting constrains the different hydrothermal activity for each field. Two hydrothermal fields in the southern CIR are located on the axial rift-valley wall. The hydrogen-rich Kairei hydrothermal field at 25°19′S is constrained by both basaltic magmatism and detachment faulting that exhume ultramafic rocks on a shallow subsurface, whereas no evidence of ultramafic exposure is recognized in the typical mid-ocean ridge type Edmond hydrothermal field at 23°52′S. Two other hydrothermal fields have been newly discovered in the central CIR. The Solitaire field at 19°33′S is located about 2.6 km away from the neo-volcanic zone and is likely influenced by intra-plate volcanism. The Dodo field at 18°20′S is located at the center of the axial valley floor, where a basaltic sheet-lava flow buries the seafloor. The lava morphology and the existence of an adjacent large off-axis seamount support the idea that excess melt is supplied in this segment. The anomalous magmatism is likely influenced by mantle plume components or by a large-offset transform fault just north of the segment. The large diversity found in the four hydrothermal fields along the CIR provides important insights on the tectonic control of global hydrothermal systems. More... »

PAGES

133-146

Book

TITLE

Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems

ISBN

978-4-431-54864-5
978-4-431-54865-2

Author Affiliations

From Grant

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2_11

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2_11

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050137223


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44 schema:description Since the discovery of the Kairei hydrothermal field at the southernmost end of the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) in 2000, only four active hydrothermal vent fields have subsequently been discovered. These four hydrothermal fields show remarkable diversity in the chemical compositions of fluids and associated ecosystems. Focused geophysical mapping and rock sampling indicate that different tectonic setting constrains the different hydrothermal activity for each field. Two hydrothermal fields in the southern CIR are located on the axial rift-valley wall. The hydrogen-rich Kairei hydrothermal field at 25°19′S is constrained by both basaltic magmatism and detachment faulting that exhume ultramafic rocks on a shallow subsurface, whereas no evidence of ultramafic exposure is recognized in the typical mid-ocean ridge type Edmond hydrothermal field at 23°52′S. Two other hydrothermal fields have been newly discovered in the central CIR. The Solitaire field at 19°33′S is located about 2.6 km away from the neo-volcanic zone and is likely influenced by intra-plate volcanism. The Dodo field at 18°20′S is located at the center of the axial valley floor, where a basaltic sheet-lava flow buries the seafloor. The lava morphology and the existence of an adjacent large off-axis seamount support the idea that excess melt is supplied in this segment. The anomalous magmatism is likely influenced by mantle plume components or by a large-offset transform fault just north of the segment. The large diversity found in the four hydrothermal fields along the CIR provides important insights on the tectonic control of global hydrothermal systems.
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