Surface Engineering for Biotribological Application View Full Text


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Chapter Info

DATE

2013-02-20

AUTHORS

D. V. Shtansky , Manish Roy

ABSTRACT

Advances in medical science and development in biomedical materials have led to a remarkable increase in ageing population and improvement of quality of life. Monitoring of friction and wear in human body has played a very significant role in enhancing human lifespan. Several organs, joints and critical parts of human body wear out and need to be replaced. Friction and wear play important role in several cardiovascular devices. Heart disease is one of the most common diseases requiring replacement of heart valve. Artificial heart valves are used to replace damaged or diseased natural valves resulting in significant improvement of life span and quality of life. These valves are generally made of pyrolytic carbon (PyC). However, this material is brittle and has low blood compatibility. Consequently, the patients suffer from thrombosis and require taking anti-coagulation medicine which has side effects. Synthetic vascular grafts are used to repair weakened blood vessels to bypass blockages has resulted in enhanced blood flow to severely ischemic organs and limbs. In order to improve the pumping function of the heart, intra-aortic balloon pump, ventricular assist device, total implantable artificial heart, etc. are being used. Pacemakers and automatic internal defibrillators are widely used to over ride or correct aberrant, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. All these devices are subjected to wear and tear during implanting or during operation. In addition, life threatening occlusive diseases of the arteries is treated with implantation of stents. It is a device which is inserted into the body passages using catheter to maintain the flow of blood, urine, bile or air. It is important to minimise the friction during insertion and removal of stents in order to minimise damages of tissue. There are several approaches to minimise such friction. Surface coating with self-lubrication layer is one measure which has become very popular in recent times. However, such treatment suffers from the drawbacks of thrombotic occlusion/stenosis and restenosis [1–3] due to platelet activation, etc. [4]. Similarly, thromboembolism is another problem for management of implanted mechanical heart valve prosthesis [5]. Further, medical implants can fail due to wear, fatigue, chemical degradation, infection, etc. leading to osteolysis, loosening. More... »

PAGES

277-310

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-7091-0101-8_8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-7091-0101-8_8

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013813313


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