Cryopreservation of Germplasm of Cereals (Wheat, Rice, and Maize) View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1995

AUTHORS

Y. P. S. Bajaj

ABSTRACT

Cereals are the main source of staple carbohydrate food, and are grown in most countries (Table 1). They cover an area of about 699 588 000 ha with a production of 1 952 224 000 metric tonnes (FAO 1992). Their germplasm is preserved through seed, however, with the ever enthusiastic search for novel plants and the rapid increase in the number of cultivars, it is not only becoming difficult, but at times impossible to preserve or maintain the old genetic stocks. Therefore, some of the germplasm which may not be of much use at present, but might be needed in future, is ignored and lost. For example, in wheat, with the introduction of exotic cultivars and their cultivation over large areas, the native genotypes are often ignored and sometimes lost. This has been one of the aftereffects of the green revolution. Likewise, since World War II, 95% of the wheat varieties in Greece have been abandoned (Plucknett et al. 1983), some of them obviously lost, leading to the depletion of genetic variability. In maize, the susceptibility to Helminthosporium maydis cost US farmers hundreds of millions of dollars in lost production in 1970 (Pluncknett et al. 1983). This attracted international attention, and now germplasm banks are supported in many countries (Tables 2, 3, 4). The CIMMYT germplasm bank has perhaps the largest maize seed collection: The relevance of the establishment of germplasm banks is especially evident when material is preserved that has vanished elsewhere. For instance, Oryza perennis from Taiwan, which is resistant to ragged stunt virus, is now extinct there; however, it was previously stored at IRRI. Likewise in Kampuchea, many unique rice cultivars were lost as far back as 1970, but some have been preserved at IRRI (Plucknett et al. 1983). Thus, there is a need to develop and strengthen germplasm banks, and new technologies have to be applied for long-term and stable storage. More... »

PAGES

217-235

Book

TITLE

Cryopreservation of Plant Germplasm I

ISBN

978-3-642-08184-2
978-3-662-03096-7

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-662-03096-7_14

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03096-7_14

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050141748


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