Somatic Embryogenesis and Its Applications for Crop Improvement View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1995

AUTHORS

Y. P. S. Bajaj

ABSTRACT

One of the most spectacular achievements in plant tissue culture has been the discovery of the induction of somatic embryogenesis in cell cultures (Reinert 1958; Steward et al. 1958). It demonstrated the persistence of totipotency in cells of higher plants, i.e., the regeneration of whole plants (see Reinert et al. 1977). These embryos are bipolar, in contrast to monopolar shoots or roots. Various developmental stages of somatic embryos, i.e., proembryo, globular, heart- and torpedo-shaped, are all strikingly similar to those occurring after the fertilization of the egg cell (Reinert 1959; see Figs. 1–12). Various terms, such as embryo-like structures, embryoides, adventitious embryos, accessory embryos, secondary embryos, asexual embryos, somatic embryos, etc., have been applied to these structures by various authors. In this chapter, the term somatic embryo has been used. Perhaps the best definition of such structures (Haccius 1971) states that the decisive feature for categorizing a plant structure as an embryo, besides other morphological properties, is its bipolarity and the fact that at the earliest developmental stage it has at opposite ends a shoot and a radicular pole. Furthermore, this system must not be connected with the vascular tissue of the mother plant or the explant during its initiation and development. With monopolar buds and roots, on the other hand, it is often possible to show their connection with the vascular elements of the mother plant or in the callus. More... »

PAGES

105-125

Book

TITLE

Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I

ISBN

978-3-642-08183-5
978-3-662-03091-2

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-662-03091-2_8

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-03091-2_8

DIMENSIONS

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