Quantitative Assays of Phytotoxins Using Plant Protoplasts and Isolated Cells View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1992

AUTHORS

E. Galun , A. Breiman

ABSTRACT

In the absence of a chemical definition, an extract (or a fraction of it) from a phytopathogen is characterized as a phytotoxin by the effect of the former in bioassays (Yoder 1980, 1981). Conceptually, the most appropriate bioassay should involve a system that directly expresses the interaction of the assayed phytotoxin with its immediate target. Unfortunately, such systems are rare in plants. Even in well-studied phytotoxin systems such as the interaction of tentoxin with the β-subunit of the CF1 component of the chloroplast ATPase (Steele et al. 1976; Avni 1990), changes in electrical properties of oat-cell membranes by victorin C (Ullrich and Novacky 1991), and the effect of Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin (Hm T toxin) on maize mitochondria (Earle 1982; Holden and Sze 1989), the immediate target and the exact mode of action of the respective phytotoxins were not unravelled. We therefore face a dilemma: a chemically defined toxin is the preferable tool for the study of the mode of action of a phytotoxin, but once a phytotoxin is purified, its chemical analysis, rather than its biological impact, may provide the preferable means for quantitative determination. On the other hand, bioassays are imperative for the chemical purification of putative phytotoxins. Moreover, some phytotoxins impart rather typical and well-defined symptoms on the appropriate susceptible hosts (e.g., phaseotoxin from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola on beans; Patil et al. 1972); using such symptoms for bioassay could thus be a useful step in the study of a given pathogen-phytotoxin-host system. Another point in favor of bioassays is that some (chemically defined) phytotoxins seem to be synergetic with less-defined extracts from a given phytopathogen. For the evaluation of such synergistic effects, bioassays could be rather useful. More... »

PAGES

33-50

Book

TITLE

Plant Toxin Analysis

ISBN

978-3-642-08090-6
978-3-662-02783-7

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-662-02783-7_2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-02783-7_2

DIMENSIONS

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