Intracellular Transport of Retroviral Capsid Components View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1996

AUTHORS

H.-G. Kräusslich , R. Welker

ABSTRACT

Formation of a virus particle protects the viral genome from exogenous agents and permits release of its content upon delivery to the target cell. Retroviruses generally cause persistent infections and do not usually lyse their host cells. In this case virus morphogenesis requires transport of individual virion components to a specific site within the producer cell, with subsequent assembly and release by budding from the plasma membrane. Extracellular infectious retroviruses are composed of an inner core containing the RNA genome and the viral replication enzymes (products of the pol gene) enclosed in a host-derived lipid membrane that contains the viral glycoproteins (products of the env gene; Fig. 1). Morphogenesis of any retrovirus therefore requires the morphoieic function of Fig. 1 Assembly and disassembly (late and early) phases of retroviral replication. In the upper part, three essential genes for particle formation (gag, pol, env) are depicted. The domain organization is shown for the polyproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, but is generally similar for all retroviruses. MA, matrix; CA, capsid;NC, nucleocapsid; PR; RT, reverse transcriptase; IN, integrase; SU surface glycoprotein; TM, transmembrane glycoprotein. The N-terminal MA domain is highligthed; the circle indicates modification by myristic acid. In the lower part, the late events leading to assembly, by budding, and release of immature viruses are shown on the left, extracellular maturation to the infectious virion in the middle, and the early phase of infection (including virus uptake, uncoating, genome replicaion, and integration) on the right the core proteins encoded by the gag gene at the 5′ end of the genome. Incorporation of the othe components (Pol and Enc proteins and genomic RNA) is not necessary for particle formation, but is necessary for infectivity and may also be important in targeting and assembly. Additional viral and cellular proteins have been identified in infectious retrovirus preparations, most notably in the case of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Some of these accesory proteins serve important functions (see Chap. 7) while others are fortuitous contaminants, due to the fact that retroviruses cannot be purified to homogeneity. Moreover, particle assembly in the infected cell can lead to nonspecific incorporation of cytoplasmic proteins or nucleic acids if these are available at the assembly site and are not actively excluded. More... »

PAGES

25-63

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-80145-7_2

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-80145-7_2

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039013359

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8791724


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