UV-B Radiation and Photoimmunology View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1994

AUTHORS

Frances P. Noonan , Edward C. DeFabo

ABSTRACT

Irradiation with ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) initiates a selective immunosuppression which results in a down regulation of cell-mediated immunity. This form of immune suppression may be a fundamental regulatory mechanism, controlling the interaction between mammals and potentially deleterious environmental radiation. Immunosuppression by UV-B is mediated via a functional alteration to antigen-presenting cells, specialized cells that initiate immune responses by processing foreign proteins (antigens) and “presenting” them to lymphocytes which carry out the immune response. Most antigen-presenting cells cannot be reached by UV-B photons in vivo and UV-B therefore affects their function indirectly.We have suggested that the mechanism for UV-B suppression is initiated by the photoisomerization of a photoreceptor molecule, urocanic acid (UCA), in the skin from the trans to the cis isomer. Cis UCA initiates a series of events in vivo that result in altered antigen-presenting cell function and immunosuppression. The sequence of events by which cis UCA acts is incompletely understood. Cis UCA prevents the induction of cAMP in skin fibroblasts, a critical signaling step in activation of these cells, and may thus prevent the elaboration of critical regulatory molecules. Furthermore, cis UCA at higher concentrations stimulates the formation from blood monocytes of prostaglandin E2, an immunosuppressant. A number of factors regulate UV suppression, including a genetically-determined susceptibility in which an autosomal dominant gene determining high susceptibility may interact with sex-linked factors.The predicted increase in immunosuppressing radiation resulting from ozone depletion can be calculated; therefore, quatification of the risk to human populations of this enhanced immunosuppression may be possible as more data become available. More... »

PAGES

207-207

Book

TITLE

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion/UV-B Radiation in the Biosphere

ISBN

978-3-642-78886-4
978-3-642-78884-0

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-78884-0_25

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-78884-0_25

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020117800


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