Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination potential. View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1994

AUTHORS

M E Conner , D O Matson , M K Estes

ABSTRACT

The development of a successful rotavirus vaccine is a complex problem. Our review of rotavirus vaccine development shows that many challenges remain, and priorities for future studies need to be established. For example, the evaluation of administration of a vaccine with OPV or breast milk might receive less emphasis until a vaccine is made that shows clear efficacy against all virus serotypes. Samples remaining from previous trials should be analyzed to determine epitope-specific serum and coproantibody responses to clarify why only some trials were successful. Detailed evaluation of the antigenic properties of the viruses circulating and causing illness in vaccinated children also should be performed for comparisons with the vaccine strains. In future trials, sample collection should include monitoring for asymptomatic infections and cellular immune responses should be analyzed. The diversity of rotavirus serotype distribution must be monitored before, during, and after a trial in the study population and placebo recipients must be matched carefully to vaccine recipients. Epidemiologic and molecular studies should be expanded to document, or disprove, the possibility of animal to human rotavirus transmission, because, if this occurs, vaccine protection may be more difficult in those areas of the world where cohabitation with animals occurs. We also need to have an accurate assessment of the rate of protection that follows natural infections. Is it realistic to try to achieve 90% protective efficacy with a vaccine if natural infections with these enteric pathogens only provide 60% or 70% protection? Subunit vaccines should be considered to be part of vaccine strategies, especially if maternal antibody interferes with the take of live vaccines. The constraints on development of new vaccines are not likely to come from molecular biology. The challenge remains whether the biology and immunology of rotavirus infections can be understood and exploited to permit effective vaccination. Recent advances in developing small animal models for evaluation of vaccine efficacy should facilitate future vaccine development and understanding of the protective immune response(s) (Ward et al. 1990b; Conner et al. 1993). More... »

PAGES

285-337

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-78256-5_10

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-78256-5_10

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082627045

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8050282


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