Immunosuppression by Blocking α4-Integrins/VCAM-1 Adhesion View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1998

AUTHORS

M. Isobe , J. Hori , J. Suzuki

ABSTRACT

Allograft rejection is the expression of an immune reaction of the recipient against foreign antigens of the transplanted tissue and is mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. The initial step consists of T lymphocyte adhesion to graft endothelium, a process that is mediated by cell adhesion molecules. It has been shown that there are several pathways for recognition of alloantigens on the transplanted vascularized organs, and cell adhesion molecules play important roles in these processes. Adhesion is necessary for tightening of contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Two signals are required for optimal clonal expansion of T cells: one from the T cell receptor upon binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen and the other signal from receptors that are distinctive from T cell receptors (Mueller et al. 1989; Schwartz et al. 1989; Schwartz 1990). Shaw et al. found that several adhesion molecules produce such costimulatory signals (Clevers et al. 1988; Shimizu et al. 1990a; Weaver and Unaue 1990). Schwartz et al. showed that, in the absence of the costimulatory signal, T cells become inactivated against the particular antigen, which leads to clonal anergy of the T cells (Mueller et al. 1989). More... »

PAGES

85-98

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052390185

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9479862


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1107", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Immunology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antibodies, Monoclonal", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antigens", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Antigens, CD", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cell Adhesion Molecules", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Corneal Transplantation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Cytokines", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Graft Rejection", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Heart Transplantation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Immune Tolerance", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Integrin alpha4", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Integrin alpha4beta1", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Integrins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Myocardium", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Skin Transplantation", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Solubility", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Survivors", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Transplantation, Homologous", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Shinshu University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.263518.b", 
          "name": [
            "The First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto\u00a0390, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Isobe", 
        "givenName": "M.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01266743300.99", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01266743300.99"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University of Tokyo", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26999.3d", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo, School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo\u00a0113, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Hori", 
        "givenName": "J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01176214513.29", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176214513.29"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Shinshu University", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.263518.b", 
          "name": [
            "The First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto\u00a0390, Japan"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Suzuki", 
        "givenName": "J.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0747770510.79", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0747770510.79"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(90)90018-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001469672"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(90)90018-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001469672"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/312548a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003114730", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/312548a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.06.040188.003213", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003773966"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.158.2.586", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007156247"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.174.4.901", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008174485"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199303000-00001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009783266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199303000-00001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009783266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.1830210311", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009917512"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199308000-00039", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010179607"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199308000-00039", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010179607"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199308000-00039", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010179607"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.599", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015181882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.05.040187.001255", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017691860"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.169.3.779", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018438773"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.07.040189.002305", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020907670"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.721", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023471132"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.114.3.557", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024467196"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291x(92)91623-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024865336"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.89.4.1760", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025112163"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.759", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025885608"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/exer.1997.0316", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026673608"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/381434a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027764557", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/381434a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(89)90775-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027916931"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.85.2.738", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033376514"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/346425a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035127925", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/346425a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199304000-00040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037268575"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199304000-00040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037268575"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.5.1241", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040210369"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065x.1990.tb00563.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041208625"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.15.6403", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046517354"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.84.3.1246", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048999411"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.179.2.481", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049525584"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/366076a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051071016", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/366076a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199209000-00013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051532266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199209000-00013", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051532266"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.177.3.597", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053032170"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/356607a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053474061", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/356607a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199608150-00019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060276043"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199608150-00019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060276043"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199608150-00019", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060276043"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1323143", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062475362"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1347662", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062476822"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2113314", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062522797"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.92.5.1126", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063336523"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075755929", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076008520", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077338495", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077423741", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951317", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951319", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077952359", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078359762", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079368590", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079473991", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080658504", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082399409", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082463247", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082648889", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082679634", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082805264", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082965284", 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "1998", 
    "datePublishedReg": "1998-01-01", 
    "description": "Allograft rejection is the expression of an immune reaction of the recipient against foreign antigens of the transplanted tissue and is mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. The initial step consists of T lymphocyte adhesion to graft endothelium, a process that is mediated by cell adhesion molecules. It has been shown that there are several pathways for recognition of alloantigens on the transplanted vascularized organs, and cell adhesion molecules play important roles in these processes. Adhesion is necessary for tightening of contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Two signals are required for optimal clonal expansion of T cells: one from the T cell receptor upon binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen and the other signal from receptors that are distinctive from T cell receptors (Mueller et al. 1989; Schwartz et al. 1989; Schwartz 1990). Shaw et al. found that several adhesion molecules produce such costimulatory signals (Clevers et al. 1988; Shimizu et al. 1990a; Weaver and Unaue 1990). Schwartz et al. showed that, in the absence of the costimulatory signal, T cells become inactivated against the particular antigen, which leads to clonal anergy of the T cells (Mueller et al. 1989).", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Holzmann", 
        "givenName": "Bernhard", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Wagner", 
        "givenName": "Hermann", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-3-642-71989-9", 
        "978-3-642-71987-5"
      ], 
      "name": "Leukocyte Integrins in the Immune System and Malignant Disease", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "name": "Immunosuppression by Blocking \u03b14-Integrins/VCAM-1 Adhesion", 
    "pagination": "85-98", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "f98d45a72c8589ac1f3145d908453f66cb475deb739b0b25c66d9f5f365b3ff0"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1052390185"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "9479862"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "location": "Berlin, Heidelberg", 
      "name": "Springer Berlin Heidelberg", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052390185"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-15T15:24", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8672_00000275.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

325 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      103 URIs      42 LITERALS      30 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6 schema:about N0806410584d94e2588944e569f2a272d
2 N12c4cd78835f4d09a1267f727c534fec
3 N133d04925f9648168fc207ce4a30a05e
4 N16466105ead04eeaa50826eb2f025561
5 N244c131fde6c4d8cb4e8400740cfef12
6 N245dcf356c1b4017a193a06676af83b9
7 N25dda93549fc45a48257a9b27d05eb1b
8 N45fccf01090341b892128fa67b6c3298
9 N55857b9494474f69a2f7ef831f77d528
10 N5ad3336ecd1f47159498dbb9739f832c
11 N66d9b4c88fa14ee7a67e91d16514fafb
12 N691b5fcb21444eb3aa8e3020fe2ca973
13 N8df55a84aa86403fa009c03451b1c970
14 N94518b4b8d8c497eb2597ccca63c7f48
15 N9eab6acb8bcf4928897626ba5b77ed93
16 Na731fee8ebae44cda4c4f7a6bf25874a
17 Nadf4c44bb96743cc8a70d92ba50443c7
18 Nae3bb9ac73b74fa8a8a3d3bc23102dcb
19 Nc045dc6315ee4d5ca6c37a66eb3bd216
20 Nd5db41a150f14c50b3a8e22f715c94c1
21 Nd7ddd826501a4a01964870a91a5d99ee
22 anzsrc-for:11
23 anzsrc-for:1107
24 schema:author N7c1f4d3aca3d4fe9b91a14236bef0332
25 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1038/312548a0
26 sg:pub.10.1038/346425a0
27 sg:pub.10.1038/356607a0
28 sg:pub.10.1038/366076a0
29 sg:pub.10.1038/381434a0
30 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075755929
31 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076008520
32 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077338495
33 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077423741
34 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951317
35 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951319
36 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077952359
37 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078359762
38 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079368590
39 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079473991
40 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080658504
41 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082399409
42 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082463247
43 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082648889
44 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082679634
45 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082805264
46 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082965284
47 https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.1830210311
48 https://doi.org/10.1006/exer.1997.0316
49 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291x(92)91623-x
50 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(89)90775-7
51 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(90)90018-5
52 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.15.6403
53 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.114.3.557
54 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.158.2.586
55 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.169.3.779
56 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.599
57 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.721
58 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.759
59 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.174.4.901
60 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.5.1241
61 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.177.3.597
62 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.179.2.481
63 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199209000-00013
64 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199303000-00001
65 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199304000-00040
66 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199308000-00039
67 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199608150-00019
68 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065x.1990.tb00563.x
69 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1323143
70 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1347662
71 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2113314
72 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.05.040187.001255
73 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.06.040188.003213
74 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.07.040189.002305
75 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.84.3.1246
76 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.85.2.738
77 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.89.4.1760
78 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.92.5.1126
79 schema:datePublished 1998
80 schema:datePublishedReg 1998-01-01
81 schema:description Allograft rejection is the expression of an immune reaction of the recipient against foreign antigens of the transplanted tissue and is mostly mediated by T lymphocytes. The initial step consists of T lymphocyte adhesion to graft endothelium, a process that is mediated by cell adhesion molecules. It has been shown that there are several pathways for recognition of alloantigens on the transplanted vascularized organs, and cell adhesion molecules play important roles in these processes. Adhesion is necessary for tightening of contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Two signals are required for optimal clonal expansion of T cells: one from the T cell receptor upon binding to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen and the other signal from receptors that are distinctive from T cell receptors (Mueller et al. 1989; Schwartz et al. 1989; Schwartz 1990). Shaw et al. found that several adhesion molecules produce such costimulatory signals (Clevers et al. 1988; Shimizu et al. 1990a; Weaver and Unaue 1990). Schwartz et al. showed that, in the absence of the costimulatory signal, T cells become inactivated against the particular antigen, which leads to clonal anergy of the T cells (Mueller et al. 1989).
82 schema:editor Nb9599e1755544f89945b51afd1efa46e
83 schema:genre chapter
84 schema:inLanguage en
85 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
86 schema:isPartOf Nf2a1db0cc48a4176be6f43284b870513
87 schema:name Immunosuppression by Blocking α4-Integrins/VCAM-1 Adhesion
88 schema:pagination 85-98
89 schema:productId N005f805907334fd799182dd5bdb19fb3
90 N2730a48eaa1443ecb8491546619f15ec
91 N6e90b460631f435abac0eb9ab90f8a2a
92 Nca53b7466b234035ad746827964791bd
93 schema:publisher N444b04194bbf4cf59b9398552afa9500
94 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052390185
95 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6
96 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-15T15:24
97 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
98 schema:sdPublisher N924e92b6682c4ad396b96e22acc397f0
99 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6
100 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
101 sgo:sdDataset chapters
102 rdf:type schema:Chapter
103 N005f805907334fd799182dd5bdb19fb3 schema:name doi
104 schema:value 10.1007/978-3-642-71987-5_6
105 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
106 N0806410584d94e2588944e569f2a272d schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
107 schema:name Humans
108 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
109 N12c4cd78835f4d09a1267f727c534fec schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
110 schema:name Cytokines
111 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
112 N133d04925f9648168fc207ce4a30a05e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
113 schema:name Corneal Transplantation
114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
115 N16466105ead04eeaa50826eb2f025561 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
116 schema:name Graft Rejection
117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
118 N244c131fde6c4d8cb4e8400740cfef12 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
119 schema:name Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing
120 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
121 N245dcf356c1b4017a193a06676af83b9 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
122 schema:name Integrins
123 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
124 N25dda93549fc45a48257a9b27d05eb1b schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
125 schema:name Animals
126 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
127 N2730a48eaa1443ecb8491546619f15ec schema:name readcube_id
128 schema:value f98d45a72c8589ac1f3145d908453f66cb475deb739b0b25c66d9f5f365b3ff0
129 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
130 N3015771dc9514790a630c957ef40b799 rdf:first Ndf5aa94d978545cb89d73ab1f16484f5
131 rdf:rest rdf:nil
132 N444b04194bbf4cf59b9398552afa9500 schema:location Berlin, Heidelberg
133 schema:name Springer Berlin Heidelberg
134 rdf:type schema:Organisation
135 N45fccf01090341b892128fa67b6c3298 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
136 schema:name Integrin alpha4
137 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
138 N55857b9494474f69a2f7ef831f77d528 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
139 schema:name Antibodies, Monoclonal
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 N5ad3336ecd1f47159498dbb9739f832c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
142 schema:name Myocardium
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 N606cc0f308b945a4be38de420a86f6bd rdf:first sg:person.0747770510.79
145 rdf:rest rdf:nil
146 N6295618cec38433e9cb171180823b09e rdf:first sg:person.01176214513.29
147 rdf:rest N606cc0f308b945a4be38de420a86f6bd
148 N66d9b4c88fa14ee7a67e91d16514fafb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
149 schema:name Heart Transplantation
150 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
151 N691b5fcb21444eb3aa8e3020fe2ca973 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
152 schema:name Antigens
153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
154 N6e90b460631f435abac0eb9ab90f8a2a schema:name pubmed_id
155 schema:value 9479862
156 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
157 N7c1f4d3aca3d4fe9b91a14236bef0332 rdf:first sg:person.01266743300.99
158 rdf:rest N6295618cec38433e9cb171180823b09e
159 N8df55a84aa86403fa009c03451b1c970 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
160 schema:name Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
161 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
162 N8e2e758640af483eb7d74e1c0db9cffa schema:familyName Holzmann
163 schema:givenName Bernhard
164 rdf:type schema:Person
165 N924e92b6682c4ad396b96e22acc397f0 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
166 rdf:type schema:Organization
167 N94518b4b8d8c497eb2597ccca63c7f48 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
168 schema:name Transplantation, Homologous
169 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
170 N9eab6acb8bcf4928897626ba5b77ed93 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
171 schema:name Skin Transplantation
172 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
173 Na731fee8ebae44cda4c4f7a6bf25874a schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
174 schema:name Immune Tolerance
175 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
176 Nadf4c44bb96743cc8a70d92ba50443c7 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
177 schema:name Integrin alpha4beta1
178 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
179 Nae3bb9ac73b74fa8a8a3d3bc23102dcb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
180 schema:name Survivors
181 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
182 Nb9599e1755544f89945b51afd1efa46e rdf:first N8e2e758640af483eb7d74e1c0db9cffa
183 rdf:rest N3015771dc9514790a630c957ef40b799
184 Nc045dc6315ee4d5ca6c37a66eb3bd216 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
185 schema:name Solubility
186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
187 Nca53b7466b234035ad746827964791bd schema:name dimensions_id
188 schema:value pub.1052390185
189 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
190 Nd5db41a150f14c50b3a8e22f715c94c1 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
191 schema:name Cell Adhesion Molecules
192 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
193 Nd7ddd826501a4a01964870a91a5d99ee schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
194 schema:name Antigens, CD
195 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
196 Ndf5aa94d978545cb89d73ab1f16484f5 schema:familyName Wagner
197 schema:givenName Hermann
198 rdf:type schema:Person
199 Nf2a1db0cc48a4176be6f43284b870513 schema:isbn 978-3-642-71987-5
200 978-3-642-71989-9
201 schema:name Leukocyte Integrins in the Immune System and Malignant Disease
202 rdf:type schema:Book
203 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
204 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
205 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
206 anzsrc-for:1107 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
207 schema:name Immunology
208 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
209 sg:person.01176214513.29 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26999.3d
210 schema:familyName Hori
211 schema:givenName J.
212 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01176214513.29
213 rdf:type schema:Person
214 sg:person.01266743300.99 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.263518.b
215 schema:familyName Isobe
216 schema:givenName M.
217 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01266743300.99
218 rdf:type schema:Person
219 sg:person.0747770510.79 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.263518.b
220 schema:familyName Suzuki
221 schema:givenName J.
222 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0747770510.79
223 rdf:type schema:Person
224 sg:pub.10.1038/312548a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003114730
225 https://doi.org/10.1038/312548a0
226 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
227 sg:pub.10.1038/346425a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035127925
228 https://doi.org/10.1038/346425a0
229 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
230 sg:pub.10.1038/356607a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053474061
231 https://doi.org/10.1038/356607a0
232 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
233 sg:pub.10.1038/366076a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051071016
234 https://doi.org/10.1038/366076a0
235 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
236 sg:pub.10.1038/381434a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027764557
237 https://doi.org/10.1038/381434a0
238 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
239 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075755929 schema:CreativeWork
240 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076008520 schema:CreativeWork
241 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077338495 schema:CreativeWork
242 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077423741 schema:CreativeWork
243 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951317 schema:CreativeWork
244 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077951319 schema:CreativeWork
245 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077952359 schema:CreativeWork
246 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1078359762 schema:CreativeWork
247 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079368590 schema:CreativeWork
248 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1079473991 schema:CreativeWork
249 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1080658504 schema:CreativeWork
250 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082399409 schema:CreativeWork
251 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082463247 schema:CreativeWork
252 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082648889 schema:CreativeWork
253 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082679634 schema:CreativeWork
254 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082805264 schema:CreativeWork
255 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082965284 schema:CreativeWork
256 https://doi.org/10.1002/eji.1830210311 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009917512
257 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
258 https://doi.org/10.1006/exer.1997.0316 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026673608
259 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
260 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291x(92)91623-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024865336
261 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
262 https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(89)90775-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027916931
263 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
264 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(90)90018-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001469672
265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
266 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.15.6403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046517354
267 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
268 https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.114.3.557 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024467196
269 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
270 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.158.2.586 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007156247
271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
272 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.169.3.779 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018438773
273 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
274 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.599 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015181882
275 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
276 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.721 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023471132
277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
278 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.173.3.759 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025885608
279 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
280 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.174.4.901 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008174485
281 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
282 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.176.5.1241 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040210369
283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
284 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.177.3.597 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053032170
285 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
286 https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.179.2.481 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049525584
287 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
288 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199209000-00013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051532266
289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
290 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199303000-00001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009783266
291 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
292 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199304000-00040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037268575
293 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
294 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199308000-00039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010179607
295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
296 https://doi.org/10.1097/00007890-199608150-00019 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060276043
297 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
298 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065x.1990.tb00563.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041208625
299 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
300 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1323143 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062475362
301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
302 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1347662 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062476822
303 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
304 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.2113314 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062522797
305 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
306 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.05.040187.001255 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017691860
307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
308 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.06.040188.003213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003773966
309 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
310 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.iy.07.040189.002305 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020907670
311 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
312 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.84.3.1246 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048999411
313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
314 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.85.2.738 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033376514
315 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
316 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.89.4.1760 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025112163
317 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
318 https://doi.org/10.1161/01.cir.92.5.1126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1063336523
319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
320 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.263518.b schema:alternateName Shinshu University
321 schema:name The First Department of Internal Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390, Japan
322 rdf:type schema:Organization
323 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.26999.3d schema:alternateName University of Tokyo
324 schema:name Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo, School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
325 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...