Biogenic Impact on Materials View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2011

AUTHORS

Ina Stephan , Peter D. Askew , Anna A. Gorbushina , Manfred Grinda , Horst Hertel , Wolfgang E. Krumbein , Rolf-Joachim Müller , Michael Pantke , Rüdiger Plarre , Guenter Schmitt , Karin Schwibbert

ABSTRACT

Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made. More... »

PAGES

769-844

References to SciGraph publications

  • 1998-07. Assessment of Several Test Methods for the Determination of the Anaerobic Biodegradability of Polymers in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 2001-02. The use of an acoustic technique to assess wood decay in laboratory soil-bed tests in WOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • 1996-04. Anaerobic microbial degradation of poly (3-hydroxyalkanoates) with various terminal electron acceptors in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1997-10. Definition of compostability criteria for packaging: Initiatives in Italy in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1999-07. Evaluation of Material Biodegradability in Real Conditions–Development of a Burial Test and an Analysis Methodology Based on Numerical Vision in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1987-07. Biogenic etching of microfractures in amorphous and crystalline silicates in NATURE
  • 1993-07. A rapid evaluation plate-test for the biodegradability of plastics in APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2000-10. Aerobic Biodegradation of Polymers in Solid-State Conditions: A Review of Environmental and Physicochemical Parameter Settings in Laboratory Simulations in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1988. Involvement of Bacterial Exopolymers in Biodeterioration of Metals in BIODETERIORATION 7
  • 1988. Biologically Induced Corrosion of Natural Stones—Strong Contamination of Monuments with Nitrifying Organisms in BIODETERIORATION 7
  • 1923-08. Lichens and their Action on the Glass and Leadings of Church Windows in NATURE
  • 1996-01. Effect of the composting substrate on biodegradation of solid materials under controlled composting conditions in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1985. Solubilization, Transport, and Deposition of Mineral Cations by Microorganisms - Efficient Rock Weathering Agents in THE CHEMISTRY OF WEATHERING
  • 1996-01. An overview of methods for biodegradability testing of biopolymers and packaging materials in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1999-02. Compostable packaging materials – test methods and limit values for biodegradation in APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 1995-07. Assessing the biodegradation potential of polymers in screening- and long-term test systems in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1998-10. A New Respirometric Test Simulating Soil Burial Conditions for the Evaluation of Polymer Biodegradation in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1968-09. Über den Einfluß der Mikroflora auf die exogene Dynamik (Verwitterung und Krustenbildung) in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES
  • 1999-10. Electron Microscope Observation of Biodegradation of Polymers in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1998-03. The Use of Carbon Substrate Utilization Patterns in Environmental and Ecological Microbiology in MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
  • 1997-01. Toxicity screening of biodegradable polymers. II. Evaluation of cell culture test with medium extract in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1999-05-27. Standard Methods for Testing the Aerobic Biodegradation of Polymeric Materials. Review and Perspectives in BLOCKCOPOLYMERS - POLYELECTROLYTES - BIODEGRADATION
  • 1995. The use of biocides in paint preservation in HANDBOOK OF BIOCIDE AND PRESERVATIVE USE
  • 1995-01. Measurement of the biodegradation of starch-based materials by enzymatic methods and composting in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1993-04. Degradation of starch-plastic composites in a municipal solid waste landfill in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1976-09. Destruction of concrete by nitrification in APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 2001-05. Biodegradation of radiolabelled synthetic lignin (14C-DHP) and mechanical pulp in a compost environment in APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
  • 1985. This Planet is Alive —Weathering and Biology, A Multi-Facetted Problem — in THE CHEMISTRY OF WEATHERING
  • 1994-04. Biodegradability: An assessment of commercial polymers according to the Canadian method for anaerobic conditions in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1993-07. Distribution of poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(ε-caprolactone)aerobic degrading microorganisms in different environments in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1981-08. Biogenic rock varnishes of the negev desert (Israel) an ecological study of iron and manganese transformation by cyanobacteria and fungi in OECOLOGIA
  • 1977-11. Hydrolysis of polyesters by lipases in NATURE
  • 1993-10. A respirometric method to measure mineralization of polymeric materials in a matured compost environment in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1999-04. Temperature Effects on Soil Mineralization of Polylactic Acid Plastic in Laboratory Respirometers in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 1998-10. Evaluation of the Biodegradation of Starch and Cellulose Under Controlled Composting Conditions in JOURNAL OF POLYMERS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 2005. Directory of Microbicides for the Protection of Materials, A Handbook in NONE
  • 1997-09. Anaerobic degradation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate in BIODEGRADATION
  • Book

    TITLE

    Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing

    ISBN

    978-3-642-16640-2
    978-3-642-16641-9

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043109002


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0912", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Materials Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Engineering", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Division IV.1 Biology in Materials Protection and Environmental Issues, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Stephan", 
            "givenName": "Ina", 
            "id": "sg:person.016420066053.31", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016420066053.31"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "IMSL, Industrial Microbiological Services Limited, Pale Lane, RG27 8DH, Hartley Wintney, Hants, UK"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Askew", 
            "givenName": "Peter D.", 
            "id": "sg:person.011214614627.29", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011214614627.29"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Department Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Gorbushina", 
            "givenName": "Anna A.", 
            "id": "sg:person.0704675400.84", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0704675400.84"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Landreiterweg 22, 12353, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Grinda", 
            "givenName": "Manfred", 
            "id": "sg:person.013405136227.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013405136227.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Division IV.1, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hertel", 
            "givenName": "Horst", 
            "id": "sg:person.0726224133.62", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0726224133.62"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Material Ecology, Biogema, Drakestrasse 68, 12205, Berlin-Lichterfelde, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Krumbein", 
            "givenName": "Wolfgang E.", 
            "id": "sg:person.01167177257.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01167177257.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "GBF German Research Centre for Biotechnology", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418123.d", 
              "name": [
                "TU-BCE, Gesellschaft f\u00fcr Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Mascheroder Weg 1, 38124, Braunschweig, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "M\u00fcller", 
            "givenName": "Rolf-Joachim", 
            "id": "sg:person.013664125240.12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013664125240.12"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Division IV.1, Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Pantke", 
            "givenName": "Michael", 
            "id": "sg:person.012060310427.11", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012060310427.11"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Environmental Compatibility of Materials, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Plarre", 
            "givenName": "R\u00fcdiger", 
            "id": "sg:person.013453251427.15", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013453251427.15"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "name": [
                "Laboratory for Corrosion Protection, Iserlohn University of Applied Sciences, Frauenstuhlweg 31, 8644, Iserlohn, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schmitt", 
            "givenName": "Guenter", 
            "id": "sg:person.015046212427.25", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015046212427.25"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33", 
              "name": [
                "Division IV.1 Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 12205, Berlin, Germany"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Schwibbert", 
            "givenName": "Karin", 
            "id": "sg:person.0724232230.52", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0724232230.52"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(03)00032-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000078234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(03)00032-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000078234"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021869530253", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000278667", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021869530253"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(96)00139-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000566511"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.1993.tb00005.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000708217"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00557.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001087139"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-2818-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001229457", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2818-0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-2818-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001229457", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2818-0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015297727244", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001549031", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015297727244"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1932.0013", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001793179"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/112299a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002119373", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/112299a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01490459309377952", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003049258"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763568", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003243171", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02763568"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003784982", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003784982", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2003.068", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003814954"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657x.1997.10701877", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004288165"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004812051"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00191-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005326202"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074780", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006081097", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02074780"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006135384", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006135384", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006190788", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006190788", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00075-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006719995"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002530051372", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007290139", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530051372"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1997.tb00351.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008492579"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.4.1639-1645.2000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008738165"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1999.10414346", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010667239"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765x.1988.tb01258.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010992739"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90001517", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011675179"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90001517", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011675179"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013026703", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013026703", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00326-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015922811"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1656(00)00406-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017587543"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002530000513", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017843716", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530000513"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074870", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018319616", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02074870"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074870", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018319616", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02074870"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418206", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019584474", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01418206"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418206", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019584474", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01418206"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2640(20021015)74:10<1496::aid-cite1496>3.0.co;2-p", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019896798"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1017/s0953756200002835", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019903606"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022882732403", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020779054", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022882732403"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002489900065", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021294074", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002489900065"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(02)00051-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021557377"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.1999.020", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021637348"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1978.070221207", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021734190"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/328147a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022277184", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/328147a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740021203", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023347222"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01490458109377771", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023369331"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00069-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023951902"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00223638.1989.11737073", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024590494"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(02)00177-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025667356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(02)00177-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025667356"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(97)00033-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026576369"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00162-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027387494"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(00)00075-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027636255"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763662", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027877247", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02763662"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/270076a0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028204401", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1038/270076a0"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02068464", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029124029", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02068464"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02068464", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029124029", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02068464"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00205073", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030262365", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00205073"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00205073", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030262365", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00205073"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9418(00)00068-4", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030901882"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-9750(84)90012-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032196903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-9750(84)90012-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032196903"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0964-8305(95)00089-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033401510"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(98)00049-6", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034903742"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)00262-2", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035170309"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.8.3194-3200.2000", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035833693"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(99)00053-1", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036627514"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02067790", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037657044", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02067790"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02067790", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037657044", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02067790"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00935.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038010398"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021825715232", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038405232", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021825715232"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(00)00048-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039249656"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00304-q", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039888563"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)00007-e", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040048455"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.12.001", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040218325"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bp00026a011", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042376104"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-3861(98)00414-5", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042938982"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083883", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043215475", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083883"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083883", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043215475", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083883"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021877732070", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043444091", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021877732070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00949.x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043508751"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0929-1393(00)00069-x", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043997801"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)10017-0", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044273979"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021812418325", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044459667", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021812418325"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1163/156856104772759421", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044594742"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00238-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045806038"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022849706383", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045907980", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022849706383"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/96.4.1259", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046197692"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458031", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046933094", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458031"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458031", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046933094", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458031"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008203525476", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047266451", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008203525476"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000070", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048307432", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002260000070"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(99)00491-9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048564069"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01385433", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049897707", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01385433"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00378791", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050011882", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00378791"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00378791", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050011882", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00378791"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00240-3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050565944"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01820710", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050821179", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01820710"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01820710", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050821179", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01820710"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(92)90027-o", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051454472"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(92)90027-o", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051454472"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051523015", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051523015", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458296", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052291599", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458296"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458296", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052291599", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458296"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052656105", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052656105", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083880", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052666157", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083880", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052666157", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083880"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198310000-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053354592"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198310000-00003", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053354592"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.3630080204", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054406955"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0101522", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055219512"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0101522", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055219512"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0499334", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055220445"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0499334", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055220445"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50507a033", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055632470"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50571a035", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055637129"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1089/15311070260192273", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059214489"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1505862", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069509540"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2307/1506413", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069509977"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076215774", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076354964", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077159414", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077752765", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082382245", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082822969", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082873148", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083286225", 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.2737/fpl-gtr-70", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103738301"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2011", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2011-01-01", 
        "description": "Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made.", 
        "editor": [
          {
            "familyName": "Czichos", 
            "givenName": "Horst", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Saito", 
            "givenName": "Tetsuya", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Smith", 
            "givenName": "Leslie", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "genre": "chapter", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": {
          "isbn": [
            "978-3-642-16640-2", 
            "978-3-642-16641-9"
          ], 
          "name": "Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing", 
          "type": "Book"
        }, 
        "name": "Biogenic Impact on Materials", 
        "pagination": "769-844", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1043109002"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "cd57b2788f7611e872c477501fb7240601dead9ff618a478087967981baefb99"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "publisher": {
          "location": "Berlin, Heidelberg", 
          "name": "Springer Berlin Heidelberg", 
          "type": "Organisation"
        }, 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043109002"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "chapters", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-16T08:57", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000369_0000000369/records_68969_00000001.jsonl", 
        "type": "Chapter", 
        "url": "https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-3-642-16641-9_14"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    517 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      136 URIs      20 LITERALS      8 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
    2 anzsrc-for:0912
    3 schema:author N9d1b258f34474c9eba05600e7b41d5ed
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-2818-0
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49
    7 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58
    8 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10
    9 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9
    10 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9
    11 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00205073
    12 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00378791
    13 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01385433
    14 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418206
    15 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458031
    16 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458296
    17 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01820710
    18 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02067790
    19 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02068464
    20 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074780
    21 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074870
    22 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083880
    23 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083883
    24 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763568
    25 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763662
    26 sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000070
    27 sg:pub.10.1007/s002489900065
    28 sg:pub.10.1007/s002530000513
    29 sg:pub.10.1007/s002530051372
    30 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008203525476
    31 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015297727244
    32 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021812418325
    33 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021825715232
    34 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021869530253
    35 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021877732070
    36 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022849706383
    37 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022882732403
    38 sg:pub.10.1038/112299a0
    39 sg:pub.10.1038/270076a0
    40 sg:pub.10.1038/328147a0
    41 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076215774
    42 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076354964
    43 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077159414
    44 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077752765
    45 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082382245
    46 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082822969
    47 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082873148
    48 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083286225
    49 https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2640(20021015)74:10<1496::aid-cite1496>3.0.co;2-p
    50 https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1978.070221207
    51 https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.3630080204
    52 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740021203
    53 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(92)90027-o
    54 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00304-q
    55 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00326-4
    56 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)00007-e
    57 https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-9750(84)90012-0
    58 https://doi.org/10.1016/0964-8305(95)00089-5
    59 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1
    60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.12.001
    61 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-3861(98)00414-5
    62 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00069-2
    63 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00162-4
    64 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)00262-2
    65 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)10017-0
    66 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(98)00049-6
    67 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(99)00491-9
    68 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(00)00048-3
    69 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00075-1
    70 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00240-3
    71 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(02)00051-4
    72 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(03)00032-6
    73 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(96)00139-5
    74 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00191-2
    75 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00238-3
    76 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(99)00053-1
    77 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9418(00)00068-4
    78 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1656(00)00406-5
    79 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0929-1393(00)00069-x
    80 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(00)00075-5
    81 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(02)00177-4
    82 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(97)00033-4
    83 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0953756200002835
    84 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0101522
    85 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0499334
    86 https://doi.org/10.1021/bp00026a011
    87 https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50507a033
    88 https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50571a035
    89 https://doi.org/10.1080/00223638.1989.11737073
    90 https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1999.10414346
    91 https://doi.org/10.1080/01490458109377771
    92 https://doi.org/10.1080/01490459309377952
    93 https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657x.1997.10701877
    94 https://doi.org/10.1089/15311070260192273
    95 https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/96.4.1259
    96 https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198310000-00003
    97 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1932.0013
    98 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00935.x
    99 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00949.x
    100 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.1993.tb00005.x
    101 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765x.1988.tb01258.x
    102 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1997.tb00351.x
    103 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00557.x
    104 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.4.1639-1645.2000
    105 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.8.3194-3200.2000
    106 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856104772759421
    107 https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90001517
    108 https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.1999.020
    109 https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2003.068
    110 https://doi.org/10.2307/1505862
    111 https://doi.org/10.2307/1506413
    112 https://doi.org/10.2737/fpl-gtr-70
    113 schema:datePublished 2011
    114 schema:datePublishedReg 2011-01-01
    115 schema:description Materials as constituents of products or components of technical systems rarely exist in isolation and many must cope with exposure in the natural world. This chapter describes methods that simulate how a material is influenced through contact with living systems such as microorganisms and arthropods. Both unwanted and desirable interactions are considered. This biogenic impact on materials is intimately associated with the environment to which the material is exposed (Materials-Environment Interaction, Chap. 15). Factors such as moisture, temperature and availability of food sources all have a significant influence on biological systems. Corrosion (Chap. 12) and wear (Chap. 13) can also be induced or enhanced in the presence of microorganisms. Section 14.1 introduces the categories between desired (biodegradation) and undesired (biodeterioration) biological effects on materials. It also introduces the role of biocides for the protection of materials. Section 14.2 describes the testing of wood as a building material especially against microorganisms and insects. Section 14.3 characterizes the test methodologies for two other groups of organic materials, namely polymers (Sect. 14.3.1) and paper and textiles (Sect. 14.3.2). Section 14.4 deals with the susceptibility of inorganic materials such as metals (Sect. 14.4.1), concrete (Sect. 14.4.2) and ceramics (Sect. 14.4.3) to biogenic impact. Section 14.5 treats the testing methodology concerned with the performance of coatings and coating materials. In many of these tests specific strains of organisms are employed. It is vital that these strains retain their ability to utilize/attack the substrate from which they were isolated, even when kept for many years in the laboratory. Section 14.6 therefore considers the importance of maintaining robust and representative test organisms that are as capable of utilizing a substrate as their counterparts in nature such that realistic predictions of performance can be made.
    116 schema:editor N1dbc9a775f68471eb97d26b54b663d50
    117 schema:genre chapter
    118 schema:inLanguage en
    119 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    120 schema:isPartOf N3d319c011cb5431ebc2aa5afd0dc34e4
    121 schema:name Biogenic Impact on Materials
    122 schema:pagination 769-844
    123 schema:productId N19cb80a4a63f4a319c35cb1790f32dcd
    124 N826a91fe7c1549ea9b6a57b90506de62
    125 Nbb85711428314696a0030e85266b453d
    126 schema:publisher N8d80d90a36c9462a9cff4166dbc9968e
    127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043109002
    128 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14
    129 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-16T08:57
    130 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    131 schema:sdPublisher Nd6e661c189fe4df98f8378735be078bf
    132 schema:url https://link.springer.com/10.1007%2F978-3-642-16641-9_14
    133 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    134 sgo:sdDataset chapters
    135 rdf:type schema:Chapter
    136 N14ab6c09f8394b39ba750f504d13144b rdf:first N39acc76a3daa47679966d63073ca16fc
    137 rdf:rest Nf158cdb14dbe49ffb9bc438c38f43474
    138 N19cb80a4a63f4a319c35cb1790f32dcd schema:name readcube_id
    139 schema:value cd57b2788f7611e872c477501fb7240601dead9ff618a478087967981baefb99
    140 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    141 N1dbc9a775f68471eb97d26b54b663d50 rdf:first N6f218713f0b84042aec95ea5d4bfc4ff
    142 rdf:rest N14ab6c09f8394b39ba750f504d13144b
    143 N1f21840a75104398a1b8c8e5b20a4ee7 rdf:first sg:person.0726224133.62
    144 rdf:rest Na4b87a79a5674ef69db93ed0af0ef879
    145 N2af0877cd15c4f3b867ca164a64302e3 rdf:first sg:person.013405136227.02
    146 rdf:rest N1f21840a75104398a1b8c8e5b20a4ee7
    147 N2cb7c8254b214426bd17816f6eaa1d90 schema:name Material Ecology, Biogema, Drakestrasse 68, 12205, Berlin-Lichterfelde, Germany
    148 rdf:type schema:Organization
    149 N39acc76a3daa47679966d63073ca16fc schema:familyName Saito
    150 schema:givenName Tetsuya
    151 rdf:type schema:Person
    152 N3b916d179dea4899b633fa7da1b097d1 schema:name Laboratory for Corrosion Protection, Iserlohn University of Applied Sciences, Frauenstuhlweg 31, 8644, Iserlohn, Germany
    153 rdf:type schema:Organization
    154 N3d21ea80f0174890a61169359447fdc6 schema:name Landreiterweg 22, 12353, Berlin, Germany
    155 rdf:type schema:Organization
    156 N3d319c011cb5431ebc2aa5afd0dc34e4 schema:isbn 978-3-642-16640-2
    157 978-3-642-16641-9
    158 schema:name Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing
    159 rdf:type schema:Book
    160 N56d799ee422345a0a2dda851e298f934 rdf:first sg:person.0724232230.52
    161 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    162 N5ff4b1ecb2af4769bbb9360d4c5b7732 rdf:first sg:person.0704675400.84
    163 rdf:rest N2af0877cd15c4f3b867ca164a64302e3
    164 N6f218713f0b84042aec95ea5d4bfc4ff schema:familyName Czichos
    165 schema:givenName Horst
    166 rdf:type schema:Person
    167 N826a91fe7c1549ea9b6a57b90506de62 schema:name dimensions_id
    168 schema:value pub.1043109002
    169 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    170 N8787eba1682b44e4b6051a41e88bf2f5 rdf:first sg:person.011214614627.29
    171 rdf:rest N5ff4b1ecb2af4769bbb9360d4c5b7732
    172 N8d80d90a36c9462a9cff4166dbc9968e schema:location Berlin, Heidelberg
    173 schema:name Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    174 rdf:type schema:Organisation
    175 N90f548c1f9e44c129d9c941e1783d082 schema:familyName Smith
    176 schema:givenName Leslie
    177 rdf:type schema:Person
    178 N918923b2b0c8455f8ddac8a6ce7eb6f2 rdf:first sg:person.012060310427.11
    179 rdf:rest Nef96ac31850f4502b74a32b31305fa10
    180 N9d1b258f34474c9eba05600e7b41d5ed rdf:first sg:person.016420066053.31
    181 rdf:rest N8787eba1682b44e4b6051a41e88bf2f5
    182 Na4b87a79a5674ef69db93ed0af0ef879 rdf:first sg:person.01167177257.25
    183 rdf:rest Nd98c11bf610a49d7af8f411656ddba3b
    184 Nb90363275ad644528e553f70906f7727 rdf:first sg:person.015046212427.25
    185 rdf:rest N56d799ee422345a0a2dda851e298f934
    186 Nbb85711428314696a0030e85266b453d schema:name doi
    187 schema:value 10.1007/978-3-642-16641-9_14
    188 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    189 Ncc5ce11e86014c7b962397b75381f9ff schema:name IMSL, Industrial Microbiological Services Limited, Pale Lane, RG27 8DH, Hartley Wintney, Hants, UK
    190 rdf:type schema:Organization
    191 Nd6e661c189fe4df98f8378735be078bf schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    192 rdf:type schema:Organization
    193 Nd98c11bf610a49d7af8f411656ddba3b rdf:first sg:person.013664125240.12
    194 rdf:rest N918923b2b0c8455f8ddac8a6ce7eb6f2
    195 Nef96ac31850f4502b74a32b31305fa10 rdf:first sg:person.013453251427.15
    196 rdf:rest Nb90363275ad644528e553f70906f7727
    197 Nf158cdb14dbe49ffb9bc438c38f43474 rdf:first N90f548c1f9e44c129d9c941e1783d082
    198 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    199 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    200 schema:name Engineering
    201 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    202 anzsrc-for:0912 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    203 schema:name Materials Engineering
    204 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    205 sg:person.011214614627.29 schema:affiliation Ncc5ce11e86014c7b962397b75381f9ff
    206 schema:familyName Askew
    207 schema:givenName Peter D.
    208 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011214614627.29
    209 rdf:type schema:Person
    210 sg:person.01167177257.25 schema:affiliation N2cb7c8254b214426bd17816f6eaa1d90
    211 schema:familyName Krumbein
    212 schema:givenName Wolfgang E.
    213 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01167177257.25
    214 rdf:type schema:Person
    215 sg:person.012060310427.11 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    216 schema:familyName Pantke
    217 schema:givenName Michael
    218 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012060310427.11
    219 rdf:type schema:Person
    220 sg:person.013405136227.02 schema:affiliation N3d21ea80f0174890a61169359447fdc6
    221 schema:familyName Grinda
    222 schema:givenName Manfred
    223 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013405136227.02
    224 rdf:type schema:Person
    225 sg:person.013453251427.15 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    226 schema:familyName Plarre
    227 schema:givenName Rüdiger
    228 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013453251427.15
    229 rdf:type schema:Person
    230 sg:person.013664125240.12 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418123.d
    231 schema:familyName Müller
    232 schema:givenName Rolf-Joachim
    233 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013664125240.12
    234 rdf:type schema:Person
    235 sg:person.015046212427.25 schema:affiliation N3b916d179dea4899b633fa7da1b097d1
    236 schema:familyName Schmitt
    237 schema:givenName Guenter
    238 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015046212427.25
    239 rdf:type schema:Person
    240 sg:person.016420066053.31 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    241 schema:familyName Stephan
    242 schema:givenName Ina
    243 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016420066053.31
    244 rdf:type schema:Person
    245 sg:person.0704675400.84 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    246 schema:familyName Gorbushina
    247 schema:givenName Anna A.
    248 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0704675400.84
    249 rdf:type schema:Person
    250 sg:person.0724232230.52 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    251 schema:familyName Schwibbert
    252 schema:givenName Karin
    253 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0724232230.52
    254 rdf:type schema:Person
    255 sg:person.0726224133.62 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33
    256 schema:familyName Hertel
    257 schema:givenName Horst
    258 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0726224133.62
    259 rdf:type schema:Person
    260 sg:pub.10.1007/1-4020-2818-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001229457
    261 https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-2818-0
    262 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    263 sg:pub.10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052656105
    264 https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-69191-x_3
    265 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    266 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006190788
    267 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_49
    268 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    269 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006135384
    270 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-1363-9_58
    271 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    272 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003784982
    273 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_10
    274 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    275 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051523015
    276 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-5333-8_9
    277 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    278 sg:pub.10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013026703
    279 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1354-0_9
    280 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    281 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00205073 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030262365
    282 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00205073
    283 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    284 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00378791 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050011882
    285 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00378791
    286 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    287 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01385433 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049897707
    288 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01385433
    289 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    290 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01418206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019584474
    291 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01418206
    292 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    293 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458031 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046933094
    294 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458031
    295 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    296 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01458296 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052291599
    297 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01458296
    298 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    299 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01820710 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050821179
    300 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01820710
    301 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    302 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02067790 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037657044
    303 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02067790
    304 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    305 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02068464 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029124029
    306 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02068464
    307 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    308 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074780 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006081097
    309 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02074780
    310 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    311 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02074870 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018319616
    312 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02074870
    313 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    314 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083880 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052666157
    315 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083880
    316 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    317 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02083883 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043215475
    318 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02083883
    319 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    320 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763568 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003243171
    321 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02763568
    322 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    323 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02763662 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027877247
    324 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02763662
    325 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    326 sg:pub.10.1007/s002260000070 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048307432
    327 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002260000070
    328 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    329 sg:pub.10.1007/s002489900065 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021294074
    330 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002489900065
    331 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    332 sg:pub.10.1007/s002530000513 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017843716
    333 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530000513
    334 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    335 sg:pub.10.1007/s002530051372 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007290139
    336 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002530051372
    337 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    338 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008203525476 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047266451
    339 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008203525476
    340 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    341 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1015297727244 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001549031
    342 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015297727244
    343 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    344 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021812418325 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044459667
    345 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021812418325
    346 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    347 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021825715232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038405232
    348 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021825715232
    349 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    350 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021869530253 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000278667
    351 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021869530253
    352 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    353 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1021877732070 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043444091
    354 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021877732070
    355 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    356 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022849706383 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045907980
    357 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022849706383
    358 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    359 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1022882732403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020779054
    360 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1022882732403
    361 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    362 sg:pub.10.1038/112299a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002119373
    363 https://doi.org/10.1038/112299a0
    364 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    365 sg:pub.10.1038/270076a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028204401
    366 https://doi.org/10.1038/270076a0
    367 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    368 sg:pub.10.1038/328147a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022277184
    369 https://doi.org/10.1038/328147a0
    370 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    371 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076215774 schema:CreativeWork
    372 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1076354964 schema:CreativeWork
    373 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077159414 schema:CreativeWork
    374 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1077752765 schema:CreativeWork
    375 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082382245 schema:CreativeWork
    376 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082822969 schema:CreativeWork
    377 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1082873148 schema:CreativeWork
    378 https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1083286225 schema:CreativeWork
    379 https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2640(20021015)74:10<1496::aid-cite1496>3.0.co;2-p schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019896798
    380 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    381 https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1978.070221207 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021734190
    382 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    383 https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.3630080204 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054406955
    384 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    385 https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740021203 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023347222
    386 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    387 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(92)90027-o schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051454472
    388 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    389 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00304-q schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039888563
    390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    391 https://doi.org/10.1016/0045-6535(95)00326-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015922811
    392 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    393 https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-0229(94)00007-e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040048455
    394 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    395 https://doi.org/10.1016/0734-9750(84)90012-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032196903
    396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    397 https://doi.org/10.1016/0964-8305(95)00089-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033401510
    398 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    399 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004812051
    400 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    401 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.12.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040218325
    402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    403 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0032-3861(98)00414-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042938982
    404 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    405 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00069-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023951902
    406 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    407 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(00)00162-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027387494
    408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    409 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)00262-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035170309
    410 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    411 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(97)10017-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044273979
    412 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    413 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(98)00049-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034903742
    414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    415 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(99)00491-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048564069
    416 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    417 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(00)00048-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039249656
    418 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    419 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00075-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006719995
    420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    421 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(01)00240-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050565944
    422 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    423 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(02)00051-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021557377
    424 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    425 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(03)00032-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000078234
    426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    427 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(96)00139-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000566511
    428 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    429 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00191-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005326202
    430 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    431 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(97)00238-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045806038
    432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    433 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0141-3910(99)00053-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036627514
    434 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    435 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0142-9418(00)00068-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030901882
    436 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    437 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0168-1656(00)00406-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017587543
    438 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    439 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0929-1393(00)00069-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043997801
    440 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    441 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(00)00075-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027636255
    442 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    443 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(02)00177-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025667356
    444 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    445 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(97)00033-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026576369
    446 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    447 https://doi.org/10.1017/s0953756200002835 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019903606
    448 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    449 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0101522 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055219512
    450 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    451 https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0499334 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055220445
    452 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    453 https://doi.org/10.1021/bp00026a011 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1042376104
    454 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    455 https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50507a033 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055632470
    456 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    457 https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50571a035 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055637129
    458 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    459 https://doi.org/10.1080/00223638.1989.11737073 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024590494
    460 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    461 https://doi.org/10.1080/00380768.1999.10414346 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010667239
    462 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    463 https://doi.org/10.1080/01490458109377771 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023369331
    464 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    465 https://doi.org/10.1080/01490459309377952 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003049258
    466 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    467 https://doi.org/10.1080/1065657x.1997.10701877 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004288165
    468 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    469 https://doi.org/10.1089/15311070260192273 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059214489
    470 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    471 https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/96.4.1259 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046197692
    472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    473 https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-198310000-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1053354592
    474 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    475 https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1932.0013 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001793179
    476 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    477 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00935.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038010398
    478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    479 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1963.tb00949.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043508751
    480 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    481 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.1993.tb00005.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000708217
    482 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    483 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765x.1988.tb01258.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010992739
    484 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    485 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.1997.tb00351.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008492579
    486 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    487 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2000.tb00557.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001087139
    488 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    489 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.4.1639-1645.2000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008738165
    490 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    491 https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.8.3194-3200.2000 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035833693
    492 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    493 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856104772759421 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044594742
    494 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    495 https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90001517 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011675179
    496 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    497 https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.1999.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021637348
    498 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    499 https://doi.org/10.1515/hf.2003.068 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003814954
    500 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    501 https://doi.org/10.2307/1505862 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069509540
    502 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    503 https://doi.org/10.2307/1506413 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069509977
    504 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    505 https://doi.org/10.2737/fpl-gtr-70 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1103738301
    506 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    507 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418123.d schema:alternateName GBF German Research Centre for Biotechnology
    508 schema:name TU-BCE, Gesellschaft für Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Mascheroder Weg 1, 38124, Braunschweig, Germany
    509 rdf:type schema:Organization
    510 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.71566.33 schema:alternateName Federal Institute For Materials Research and Testing
    511 schema:name Department Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany
    512 Division IV.1 Biology in Materials Protection and Environmental Issues, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany
    513 Division IV.1 Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 12205, Berlin, Germany
    514 Division IV.1, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany
    515 Division IV.1, Materials and Environment, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), 12205, Berlin, Germany
    516 Environmental Compatibility of Materials, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205, Berlin, Germany
    517 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...