Cell Wall Structure and Pathogenicity View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2010

AUTHORS

T. A. Oelschlaeger , U. Dobrindt , J. Hacker

ABSTRACT

Surface components are essential for bacterial pathogenicity. Adhesins, fimbrial and afimbrial, mediate direct physical contact between bacteria and host surfaces. Fimbrial adhesins are composed of several subunit proteins with the adhesin proper very often located at the tip of the pilus. In contrast, afimbrial adhesins usually present as monomers. Although the majority of fimbriae were identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the number of pili in Gram-positives is steadily increasing. Most of the fimbriae of Gram-negative bacteria are anchored in the outer membrane, the fimbrial subunits are noncovalently connected and these fimbriae bind to carbohydrate residues. Pili of Gram-positives are covalently linked to peptidoglycan and among themselves and in general they interact with host proteins. The only fimbrial type present in certain Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria is type IV pili. In both bacterial groups they originate in the cytoplasmic membrane. Other surface organelles important for bacterial pathogenicity are the flagella. They is responsible not only for motility, but might function also as adhesins and invasins which can depend on glycosylation of the subunit protein flagellin. In addition, a secreted protein (EtpA) which binds to the tip of the flagella can mediate adherence. Certain adhesins and specialized surface proteins are responsible for the ability of certain pathogenic bacteria to invade host cells. The best studied examples are the invasins of the Gram-negative species Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis and the internalins of the Gram-positive species Listeria monocytogenes. Alternatively, bacteria such as Salmonella and Shigella force their internalization by host cells by injecting effector proteins via a type three secretion system directly into host cells. The intracellular location provides invasive bacteria with a relative safe niche similar to the location in a biofilm. Formation of biofilms involves surface associated proteins such as autotransporters, adhesins and flagella and the synthesis of an extracellular matrix composed of polysaccharides. This chapter presents an overview rather than a comprehensive paper regarding the great variety of cell envelope components and pathogenicity. More... »

PAGES

313-343

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  • Book

    TITLE

    Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds

    ISBN

    978-3-642-05061-9
    978-3-642-05062-6

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-05062-6_11

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-05062-6_11

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017439890


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