Exploiting Term Co-occurrence for Enhancing Automated Image Annotation View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2009

AUTHORS

Ainhoa Llorente , Simon Overell , Haiming Liu , Rui Hu , Adam Rae , Jianhan Zhu , Dawei Song , Stefan Rüger

ABSTRACT

This paper describes an application of statistical co-occurrence techniques that built on top of a probabilistic image annotation framework is able to increase the precision of an image annotation system. We observe that probabilistic image analysis by itself is not enough to describe the rich semantics of an image. Our hypothesis is that more accurate annotations can be produced by introducing additional knowledge in the form of statistical co-occurrence of terms. This is provided by the context of images that otherwise independent keyword generation would miss. We applied our algorithm to the dataset provided by ImageCLEF 2008 for the Visual Concept Detection Task (VCDT). Our algorithm not only obtained better results but also it appeared in the top quartile of all methods submitted in ImageCLEF 2008. More... »

PAGES

632-639

References to SciGraph publications

  • 2008. Web-Based Measure of Semantic Relatedness in WEB INFORMATION SYSTEMS ENGINEERING - WISE 2008
  • 2005. Automated Image Annotation Using Global Features and Robust Nonparametric Density Estimation in IMAGE AND VIDEO RETRIEVAL
  • 2009. The Visual Concept Detection Task in ImageCLEF 2008 in EVALUATING SYSTEMS FOR MULTILINGUAL AND MULTIMODAL INFORMATION ACCESS
  • Book

    TITLE

    Evaluating Systems for Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access

    ISBN

    978-3-642-04446-5
    978-3-642-04447-2

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004425280


    Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
    Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

    JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

    TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

    [
      {
        "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
        "about": [
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0801", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/08", 
            "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
            "name": "Information and Computing Sciences", 
            "type": "DefinedTerm"
          }
        ], 
        "author": [
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Open University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Llorente", 
            "givenName": "Ainhoa", 
            "id": "sg:person.012775002107.61", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012775002107.61"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Imperial College London", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7445.2", 
              "name": [
                "Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Overell", 
            "givenName": "Simon", 
            "id": "sg:person.012501331231.04", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012501331231.04"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Open University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Liu", 
            "givenName": "Haiming", 
            "id": "sg:person.015554304167.22", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015554304167.22"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Open University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Hu", 
            "givenName": "Rui", 
            "id": "sg:person.011645722553.35", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011645722553.35"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Open University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Rae", 
            "givenName": "Adam", 
            "id": "sg:person.010007016766.02", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010007016766.02"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "University College London", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b", 
              "name": [
                "University College London, Adastral Campus, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP5 3RE, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Zhu", 
            "givenName": "Jianhan", 
            "id": "sg:person.015305762173.98", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015305762173.98"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "Robert Gordon University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.59490.31", 
              "name": [
                "School of Computing, The Robert Gordon University, Andrew Street, Aberdeen, AB25 1HG, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "Song", 
            "givenName": "Dawei", 
            "id": "sg:person.016011342025.99", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016011342025.99"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "affiliation": {
              "alternateName": "The Open University", 
              "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d", 
              "name": [
                "Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom"
              ], 
              "type": "Organization"
            }, 
            "familyName": "R\u00fcger", 
            "givenName": "Stefan", 
            "id": "sg:person.013375677533.85", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013375677533.85"
            ], 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "citation": [
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969108406936", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010893796"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11526346_54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012604628", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11526346_54"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/11526346_54", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012604628", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/11526346_54"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_65", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027852860", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_65"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-85481-4_12", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036267710", 
              "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85481-4_12"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmc.1978.4309999", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061793131"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }, 
          {
            "id": "https://doi.org/10.5566/ias.v21.p201-206", 
            "sameAs": [
              "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072988624"
            ], 
            "type": "CreativeWork"
          }
        ], 
        "datePublished": "2009", 
        "datePublishedReg": "2009-01-01", 
        "description": "This paper describes an application of statistical co-occurrence techniques that built on top of a probabilistic image annotation framework is able to increase the precision of an image annotation system. We observe that probabilistic image analysis by itself is not enough to describe the rich semantics of an image. Our hypothesis is that more accurate annotations can be produced by introducing additional knowledge in the form of statistical co-occurrence of terms. This is provided by the context of images that otherwise independent keyword generation would miss. We applied our algorithm to the dataset provided by ImageCLEF 2008 for the Visual Concept Detection Task (VCDT). Our algorithm not only obtained better results but also it appeared in the top quartile of all methods submitted in ImageCLEF 2008.", 
        "editor": [
          {
            "familyName": "Peters", 
            "givenName": "Carol", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Deselaers", 
            "givenName": "Thomas", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Ferro", 
            "givenName": "Nicola", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Gonzalo", 
            "givenName": "Julio", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Jones", 
            "givenName": "Gareth J. F.", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Kurimo", 
            "givenName": "Mikko", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Mandl", 
            "givenName": "Thomas", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Pe\u00f1as", 
            "givenName": "Anselmo", 
            "type": "Person"
          }, 
          {
            "familyName": "Petras", 
            "givenName": "Vivien", 
            "type": "Person"
          }
        ], 
        "genre": "chapter", 
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79", 
        "inLanguage": [
          "en"
        ], 
        "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
        "isPartOf": {
          "isbn": [
            "978-3-642-04446-5", 
            "978-3-642-04447-2"
          ], 
          "name": "Evaluating Systems for Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access", 
          "type": "Book"
        }, 
        "name": "Exploiting Term Co-occurrence for Enhancing Automated Image Annotation", 
        "pagination": "632-639", 
        "productId": [
          {
            "name": "doi", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "readcube_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "15161d5a8d5c3c1057f18402dd348dd9e237fb189b8a949d3c907d50bc94aad5"
            ]
          }, 
          {
            "name": "dimensions_id", 
            "type": "PropertyValue", 
            "value": [
              "pub.1004425280"
            ]
          }
        ], 
        "publisher": {
          "location": "Berlin, Heidelberg", 
          "name": "Springer Berlin Heidelberg", 
          "type": "Organisation"
        }, 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79", 
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004425280"
        ], 
        "sdDataset": "chapters", 
        "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-15T22:35", 
        "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
        "sdPublisher": {
          "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8693_00000580.jsonl", 
        "type": "Chapter", 
        "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79"
      }
    ]
     

    Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

    HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

    JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79'

    N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79'

    Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

    curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79'

    RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

    curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79'


     

    This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

    184 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      33 URIs      20 LITERALS      8 BLANK NODES

    Subject Predicate Object
    1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79 schema:about anzsrc-for:08
    2 anzsrc-for:0801
    3 schema:author N675bae36f42343569d19875dcd3a915b
    4 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/11526346_54
    5 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-85481-4_12
    6 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_65
    7 https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969108406936
    8 https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmc.1978.4309999
    9 https://doi.org/10.5566/ias.v21.p201-206
    10 schema:datePublished 2009
    11 schema:datePublishedReg 2009-01-01
    12 schema:description This paper describes an application of statistical co-occurrence techniques that built on top of a probabilistic image annotation framework is able to increase the precision of an image annotation system. We observe that probabilistic image analysis by itself is not enough to describe the rich semantics of an image. Our hypothesis is that more accurate annotations can be produced by introducing additional knowledge in the form of statistical co-occurrence of terms. This is provided by the context of images that otherwise independent keyword generation would miss. We applied our algorithm to the dataset provided by ImageCLEF 2008 for the Visual Concept Detection Task (VCDT). Our algorithm not only obtained better results but also it appeared in the top quartile of all methods submitted in ImageCLEF 2008.
    13 schema:editor N89038b3fff37457b802fc7dcd6175464
    14 schema:genre chapter
    15 schema:inLanguage en
    16 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
    17 schema:isPartOf Ndb508412ddff463995a414ee23b5e3b3
    18 schema:name Exploiting Term Co-occurrence for Enhancing Automated Image Annotation
    19 schema:pagination 632-639
    20 schema:productId N032d541355244475a447a0e4301deaf5
    21 N140c373ceade4b1a86db6cb52870d936
    22 Nb58e45da7d954ac39697dcce9214fffb
    23 schema:publisher N01dc76f08b914e29bc2fc5dbd9ddc4e5
    24 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004425280
    25 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79
    26 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-15T22:35
    27 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
    28 schema:sdPublisher N9835082492664d1aa0b590cbb723607b
    29 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79
    30 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
    31 sgo:sdDataset chapters
    32 rdf:type schema:Chapter
    33 N01dc76f08b914e29bc2fc5dbd9ddc4e5 schema:location Berlin, Heidelberg
    34 schema:name Springer Berlin Heidelberg
    35 rdf:type schema:Organisation
    36 N032d541355244475a447a0e4301deaf5 schema:name dimensions_id
    37 schema:value pub.1004425280
    38 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    39 N0eed8458c76943a2b87514fcd0d761fb rdf:first sg:person.010007016766.02
    40 rdf:rest Ne48172bde8c64fcb972405b938101cb7
    41 N140c373ceade4b1a86db6cb52870d936 schema:name readcube_id
    42 schema:value 15161d5a8d5c3c1057f18402dd348dd9e237fb189b8a949d3c907d50bc94aad5
    43 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    44 N18a5863a852d43b989f493948c9b8827 schema:familyName Petras
    45 schema:givenName Vivien
    46 rdf:type schema:Person
    47 N2f684c9f60f74bbb8fa714d7ab93faba schema:familyName Mandl
    48 schema:givenName Thomas
    49 rdf:type schema:Person
    50 N31288af027f04b6fa348a59a74553a70 schema:familyName Deselaers
    51 schema:givenName Thomas
    52 rdf:type schema:Person
    53 N603694f0c21c48b3aa5dcaa10013f7b2 rdf:first Nc58fa71494654068957075c6bc56f733
    54 rdf:rest Nf1fe92bb4bad4b5e806038ff943bbb30
    55 N637f2fb16c4d4e1ca32f88cce1e7bbb6 schema:familyName Gonzalo
    56 schema:givenName Julio
    57 rdf:type schema:Person
    58 N65aef7d913224a549520c16bb59954bb rdf:first N18a5863a852d43b989f493948c9b8827
    59 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    60 N675bae36f42343569d19875dcd3a915b rdf:first sg:person.012775002107.61
    61 rdf:rest Nb64adffc499944ccaa0d29c002ddce3b
    62 N68466d90847745d88cb69152de6dbad5 rdf:first Nc11e7997139c40ab9f0fab1142173c18
    63 rdf:rest N603694f0c21c48b3aa5dcaa10013f7b2
    64 N7bf32a82dd9c4803b25888a4ba893c6b rdf:first sg:person.011645722553.35
    65 rdf:rest N0eed8458c76943a2b87514fcd0d761fb
    66 N824e8179535f42dea26a7b7c917f94bb rdf:first Nedcc34883ca247a28373f483aa2a64ed
    67 rdf:rest N65aef7d913224a549520c16bb59954bb
    68 N89038b3fff37457b802fc7dcd6175464 rdf:first Na85ddf7179fa4a49b8b87c235f86359a
    69 rdf:rest Nef940d65bee3446291aa6089fe968429
    70 N9835082492664d1aa0b590cbb723607b schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
    71 rdf:type schema:Organization
    72 Na85ddf7179fa4a49b8b87c235f86359a schema:familyName Peters
    73 schema:givenName Carol
    74 rdf:type schema:Person
    75 Naa0c1c8ad3354e0db652733e1d30ffa3 rdf:first N637f2fb16c4d4e1ca32f88cce1e7bbb6
    76 rdf:rest N68466d90847745d88cb69152de6dbad5
    77 Nb58e45da7d954ac39697dcce9214fffb schema:name doi
    78 schema:value 10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_79
    79 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
    80 Nb64adffc499944ccaa0d29c002ddce3b rdf:first sg:person.012501331231.04
    81 rdf:rest Nd8b75f822b3d459f8476e263b07b8765
    82 Nc11e7997139c40ab9f0fab1142173c18 schema:familyName Jones
    83 schema:givenName Gareth J. F.
    84 rdf:type schema:Person
    85 Nc58fa71494654068957075c6bc56f733 schema:familyName Kurimo
    86 schema:givenName Mikko
    87 rdf:type schema:Person
    88 Nc72699c47ea947439091ea04ec6216eb rdf:first Nfa5e7a8d2ed540ceb36f992583917a94
    89 rdf:rest Naa0c1c8ad3354e0db652733e1d30ffa3
    90 Ncc6a18f8fb314ac8af39d9a47e3a385d rdf:first sg:person.013375677533.85
    91 rdf:rest rdf:nil
    92 Nd8b75f822b3d459f8476e263b07b8765 rdf:first sg:person.015554304167.22
    93 rdf:rest N7bf32a82dd9c4803b25888a4ba893c6b
    94 Ndb508412ddff463995a414ee23b5e3b3 schema:isbn 978-3-642-04446-5
    95 978-3-642-04447-2
    96 schema:name Evaluating Systems for Multilingual and Multimodal Information Access
    97 rdf:type schema:Book
    98 Ne48172bde8c64fcb972405b938101cb7 rdf:first sg:person.015305762173.98
    99 rdf:rest Nf784de92340a4b7983923ebe3c659a0b
    100 Nedcc34883ca247a28373f483aa2a64ed schema:familyName Peñas
    101 schema:givenName Anselmo
    102 rdf:type schema:Person
    103 Nef940d65bee3446291aa6089fe968429 rdf:first N31288af027f04b6fa348a59a74553a70
    104 rdf:rest Nc72699c47ea947439091ea04ec6216eb
    105 Nf1fe92bb4bad4b5e806038ff943bbb30 rdf:first N2f684c9f60f74bbb8fa714d7ab93faba
    106 rdf:rest N824e8179535f42dea26a7b7c917f94bb
    107 Nf784de92340a4b7983923ebe3c659a0b rdf:first sg:person.016011342025.99
    108 rdf:rest Ncc6a18f8fb314ac8af39d9a47e3a385d
    109 Nfa5e7a8d2ed540ceb36f992583917a94 schema:familyName Ferro
    110 schema:givenName Nicola
    111 rdf:type schema:Person
    112 anzsrc-for:08 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    113 schema:name Information and Computing Sciences
    114 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    115 anzsrc-for:0801 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
    116 schema:name Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing
    117 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
    118 sg:person.010007016766.02 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d
    119 schema:familyName Rae
    120 schema:givenName Adam
    121 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010007016766.02
    122 rdf:type schema:Person
    123 sg:person.011645722553.35 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d
    124 schema:familyName Hu
    125 schema:givenName Rui
    126 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.011645722553.35
    127 rdf:type schema:Person
    128 sg:person.012501331231.04 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7445.2
    129 schema:familyName Overell
    130 schema:givenName Simon
    131 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012501331231.04
    132 rdf:type schema:Person
    133 sg:person.012775002107.61 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d
    134 schema:familyName Llorente
    135 schema:givenName Ainhoa
    136 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.012775002107.61
    137 rdf:type schema:Person
    138 sg:person.013375677533.85 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d
    139 schema:familyName Rüger
    140 schema:givenName Stefan
    141 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013375677533.85
    142 rdf:type schema:Person
    143 sg:person.015305762173.98 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b
    144 schema:familyName Zhu
    145 schema:givenName Jianhan
    146 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015305762173.98
    147 rdf:type schema:Person
    148 sg:person.015554304167.22 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d
    149 schema:familyName Liu
    150 schema:givenName Haiming
    151 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015554304167.22
    152 rdf:type schema:Person
    153 sg:person.016011342025.99 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.59490.31
    154 schema:familyName Song
    155 schema:givenName Dawei
    156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.016011342025.99
    157 rdf:type schema:Person
    158 sg:pub.10.1007/11526346_54 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012604628
    159 https://doi.org/10.1007/11526346_54
    160 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    161 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-540-85481-4_12 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036267710
    162 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85481-4_12
    163 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    164 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_65 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027852860
    165 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04447-2_65
    166 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    167 https://doi.org/10.1080/01690969108406936 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010893796
    168 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    169 https://doi.org/10.1109/tsmc.1978.4309999 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1061793131
    170 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    171 https://doi.org/10.5566/ias.v21.p201-206 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1072988624
    172 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
    173 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.10837.3d schema:alternateName The Open University
    174 schema:name Knowledge Media Institute, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom
    175 rdf:type schema:Organization
    176 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.59490.31 schema:alternateName Robert Gordon University
    177 schema:name School of Computing, The Robert Gordon University, Andrew Street, Aberdeen, AB25 1HG, United Kingdom
    178 rdf:type schema:Organization
    179 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.7445.2 schema:alternateName Imperial College London
    180 schema:name Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
    181 rdf:type schema:Organization
    182 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.83440.3b schema:alternateName University College London
    183 schema:name University College London, Adastral Campus, Ipswich, Suffolk, IP5 3RE, United Kingdom
    184 rdf:type schema:Organization
     




    Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


    ...