Anaerobic Degradation of Hydrocarbons: Mechanisms of C–H-Bond Activation in the Absence of Oxygen View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2010

AUTHORS

M. Boll , J. Heider

ABSTRACT

Hydrocarbons are highly abundant in nature and are formed either via geochemical or biological processes. Their high C–H bond dissociation energies are responsible for low chemical reactivities. Due to the toxicity of many hydrocarbons, their biological degradation is of environmental concern. In the presence of oxygen, the C–H-bond is activated by oxygenases involving enzyme-bound reactive oxygen species in exergonic reactions. In contrast, anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria use a number of alternative enzymatic reactions for the mechanistically sophisticated C–H-bond activation. Some of these reactions are only known from anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation pathways, and some follow unprecedented biochemical mechanisms. The known oxygen-independent C–H-activation reactions comprise: (1) hydroxylation with water by molybdenum cofactor containing enzymes, (2) addition to fumarate by glycyl-radical enzymes, (3) reverse methanogenesis involving variants of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, (4) methylation, and (5) carboxylation catalyzed by yet-uncharacterized enzymes. The available knowledge about these enzymes varies greatly: the ethylbenzene hydroxylating molybdenum enzyme has been characterized structurally and functionally, whereas even the mode of initial activation is at issue in case of benzene degradation (methylation vs. carboxylation). More... »

PAGES

1011-1024

Book

TITLE

Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology

ISBN

978-3-540-77584-3
978-3-540-77587-4

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-540-77587-4_71

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77587-4_71

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043174881


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