Synthesis of Hydrogels View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2009

AUTHORS

Dirk Kuckling , Karl-Friedrich Arndt , Sven Richter

ABSTRACT

In order to tailor hydrogels for the application as actuator-sensor microsystems based on the responsive behaviour of smart gels, a general strategy has to be developed. Since the phase transition phenomenon of hydrogels is theoretically well understood advanced materials based on the predictions can be prepared. The requirements for applying hydrogels can be summarized as follows: Since the volume phase transition of hydrogels is a diffusion-limited process the size of the synthesized hydrogels is an important factor. Consistent downscaling of the gel size will result in fast smart gels with sufficient response times. In order to apply smart gels in micro-systems, new preparation techniques for hydrogels have to be developed. For the up-coming nano-technology, nano-sized gels as actuating material would be of great interest. An often applied method for the synthesis of hydrogels, especially for applications in medicine and pharmaceutics, is based on radiochemistry. The hydrogel can be formed by irradiation of monomers, polymers dissolved in water, or polymers in dry state. Electrons of different energies or γ-rays are used as high-energy radiation. The possibilities of the radiation-chemical synthesis of smart hydrogels are discussed on different examples. The technique is applied to bulk polymers, to micro- and nanogel particles, and to patterned layers on different materials. The basics and fundamentals of irradiation techniques as well as the equipment are described. In addition to synthesis of hydrogels, the theory of thermoreversible gelation and the gel point itself, the determination of the gel point on gelatin by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), oscillatory shear rheology as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments will be described. Special attention has been devoted to the comparison of the results each methods have been provided when monitoring the gelatin gelation process. Furthermore, an important point is the estimation of the critical dynamical exponents in DLS and rheology at the gel point and their comparison with the theoretical prediction, which was given by Doi and Onuki. More... »

PAGES

15-67

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  • Book

    TITLE

    Hydrogel Sensors and Actuators

    ISBN

    978-3-540-75644-6
    978-3-540-75645-3

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-540-75645-3_2

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75645-3_2

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025756836


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