(Short Paper) PieceWork: Generalized Outsourcing Control for Proofs of Work View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2017-11-19

AUTHORS

Philip Daian , Ittay Eyal , Ari Juels , Emin Gün Sirer

ABSTRACT

Most prominent cryptocurrencies utilize proof of work (PoW) to secure their operation, yet PoW suffers from two key undesirable properties. First, the work done is generally wasted, not useful for anything but the gleaned security of the cryptocurrency. Second, PoW is naturally outsourceable, leading to inegalitarian concentration of power in the hands of few so-called pools that command large portions of the system’s computation power.We introduce a general approach to constructing PoW called PieceWork that tackles both issues. In essence, PieceWork allows for a configurable fraction of PoW computation to be outsourced to workers. Its controlled outsourcing allows for reusing the work towards additional goals such as spam prevention and DoS mitigation, thereby reducing PoW waste. Meanwhile, PieceWork can be tuned to prevent excessive outsourcing. Doing so causes pool operation to be significantly more costly than today. This disincentivizes aggregation of work in mining pools. More... »

PAGES

182-190

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092750668


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/08", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Information and Computing Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0802", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Computation Theory and Mathematics", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5386.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Daian", 
        "givenName": "Philip", 
        "id": "sg:person.014311053070.13", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014311053070.13"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5386.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Eyal", 
        "givenName": "Ittay", 
        "id": "sg:person.015022230121.71", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015022230121.71"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, Cornell Tech, New York, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, Cornell Tech, New York, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Juels", 
        "givenName": "Ari", 
        "id": "sg:person.0743264341.01", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743264341.01"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.5386.8", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Sirer", 
        "givenName": "Emin G\u00fcn", 
        "id": "sg:person.07757027131.87", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07757027131.87"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2017-11-19", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2017-11-19", 
    "description": "Most prominent cryptocurrencies utilize proof of work (PoW) to secure their operation, yet PoW suffers from two key undesirable properties. First, the work done is generally wasted, not useful for anything but the gleaned security of the cryptocurrency. Second, PoW is naturally outsourceable, leading to inegalitarian concentration of power in the hands of few so-called pools that command large portions of the system\u2019s computation power.We introduce a general approach to constructing PoW called PieceWork  that tackles both issues. In essence, PieceWork allows for a configurable fraction of PoW computation to be outsourced to workers. Its controlled outsourcing allows for reusing the work towards additional goals such as spam prevention and DoS mitigation, thereby reducing PoW waste. Meanwhile, PieceWork can be tuned to prevent excessive outsourcing. Doing so causes pool operation to be significantly more costly than today. This disincentivizes aggregation of work in mining pools.", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Brenner", 
        "givenName": "Michael", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Rohloff", 
        "givenName": "Kurt", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Bonneau", 
        "givenName": "Joseph", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Miller", 
        "givenName": "Andrew", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Ryan", 
        "givenName": "Peter Y.A.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Teague", 
        "givenName": "Vanessa", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Bracciali", 
        "givenName": "Andrea", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Sala", 
        "givenName": "Massimiliano", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Pintore", 
        "givenName": "Federico", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Jakobsson", 
        "givenName": "Markus", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-3-319-70277-3", 
        "978-3-319-70278-0"
      ], 
      "name": "Financial Cryptography and Data Security", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "keywords": [
      "proof of work", 
      "computation power", 
      "DoS mitigation", 
      "spam prevention", 
      "prominent cryptocurrencies", 
      "mining pools", 
      "pool operation", 
      "cryptocurrencies", 
      "outsourcing", 
      "general approach", 
      "security", 
      "proof", 
      "computation", 
      "operation", 
      "work", 
      "additional goal", 
      "large portion", 
      "undesirable properties", 
      "goal", 
      "issues", 
      "power", 
      "today", 
      "POWs", 
      "essence", 
      "piecework", 
      "mitigation", 
      "hand", 
      "aggregation", 
      "control", 
      "pool", 
      "portion", 
      "properties", 
      "workers", 
      "waste", 
      "prevention", 
      "fraction", 
      "approach", 
      "concentration", 
      "Most prominent cryptocurrencies", 
      "key undesirable properties", 
      "gleaned security", 
      "inegalitarian concentration", 
      "system\u2019s computation power", 
      "configurable fraction", 
      "PoW computation", 
      "PoW waste", 
      "excessive outsourcing", 
      "aggregation of work", 
      "Outsourcing Control"
    ], 
    "name": "(Short Paper) PieceWork: Generalized Outsourcing Control for Proofs of Work", 
    "pagination": "182-190", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1092750668"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092750668"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2021-11-01T19:00", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20211101/entities/gbq_results/chapter/chapter_419.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

178 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      74 URIs      67 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11 schema:about anzsrc-for:08
2 anzsrc-for:0802
3 schema:author N02c2b4a367724a4da297773e35687e10
4 schema:datePublished 2017-11-19
5 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-11-19
6 schema:description Most prominent cryptocurrencies utilize proof of work (PoW) to secure their operation, yet PoW suffers from two key undesirable properties. First, the work done is generally wasted, not useful for anything but the gleaned security of the cryptocurrency. Second, PoW is naturally outsourceable, leading to inegalitarian concentration of power in the hands of few so-called pools that command large portions of the system’s computation power.We introduce a general approach to constructing PoW called PieceWork that tackles both issues. In essence, PieceWork allows for a configurable fraction of PoW computation to be outsourced to workers. Its controlled outsourcing allows for reusing the work towards additional goals such as spam prevention and DoS mitigation, thereby reducing PoW waste. Meanwhile, PieceWork can be tuned to prevent excessive outsourcing. Doing so causes pool operation to be significantly more costly than today. This disincentivizes aggregation of work in mining pools.
7 schema:editor N1b5f38ab64b84b38bcec6ea635d15265
8 schema:genre chapter
9 schema:inLanguage en
10 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
11 schema:isPartOf N880756eb33ad44ed8141103539ae77f8
12 schema:keywords DoS mitigation
13 Most prominent cryptocurrencies
14 Outsourcing Control
15 POWs
16 PoW computation
17 PoW waste
18 additional goal
19 aggregation
20 aggregation of work
21 approach
22 computation
23 computation power
24 concentration
25 configurable fraction
26 control
27 cryptocurrencies
28 essence
29 excessive outsourcing
30 fraction
31 general approach
32 gleaned security
33 goal
34 hand
35 inegalitarian concentration
36 issues
37 key undesirable properties
38 large portion
39 mining pools
40 mitigation
41 operation
42 outsourcing
43 piecework
44 pool
45 pool operation
46 portion
47 power
48 prevention
49 prominent cryptocurrencies
50 proof
51 proof of work
52 properties
53 security
54 spam prevention
55 system’s computation power
56 today
57 undesirable properties
58 waste
59 work
60 workers
61 schema:name (Short Paper) PieceWork: Generalized Outsourcing Control for Proofs of Work
62 schema:pagination 182-190
63 schema:productId N0e11867592354362afe86c19b3d14939
64 N336001ab02ae42cc91f13d17f6d473e1
65 schema:publisher N42ec527643fc4f1f84d28bed849d83a8
66 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092750668
67 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11
68 schema:sdDatePublished 2021-11-01T19:00
69 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
70 schema:sdPublisher N6bdc383dad934352b2b2964a145cc1f4
71 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11
72 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
73 sgo:sdDataset chapters
74 rdf:type schema:Chapter
75 N02c2b4a367724a4da297773e35687e10 rdf:first sg:person.014311053070.13
76 rdf:rest N9c43d4ce91754792841e500058a0f27c
77 N04cf202537be4c128ef3f72f78fe12e6 schema:familyName Teague
78 schema:givenName Vanessa
79 rdf:type schema:Person
80 N05abe47a99bc4baabbe9ac254b020155 schema:familyName Brenner
81 schema:givenName Michael
82 rdf:type schema:Person
83 N0a91dd8a5fcc4166803c054fe7a72b34 rdf:first N853dac0c18f947c6b34d1610ae972c58
84 rdf:rest N3cf74c60f83e47ceb7f152b7cc9758d3
85 N0e11867592354362afe86c19b3d14939 schema:name doi
86 schema:value 10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_11
87 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
88 N1b5f38ab64b84b38bcec6ea635d15265 rdf:first N05abe47a99bc4baabbe9ac254b020155
89 rdf:rest Nbce317b8d8d34b4397690e8fda6b5c0f
90 N2905b382abb9402ebe3fdfda8797bcf1 rdf:first N49e971c193774b6693b2453a6d604936
91 rdf:rest N4959183b50584838820f428d62e942dd
92 N336001ab02ae42cc91f13d17f6d473e1 schema:name dimensions_id
93 schema:value pub.1092750668
94 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
95 N3cf74c60f83e47ceb7f152b7cc9758d3 rdf:first N50bfd1bca70445ffbebf73c1c52145ab
96 rdf:rest N6bf79209c3464dd78e8f2efc72554a8e
97 N42ec527643fc4f1f84d28bed849d83a8 schema:name Springer Nature
98 rdf:type schema:Organisation
99 N4959183b50584838820f428d62e942dd rdf:first N815f6d1f7f8d4c079db62f5252667dc1
100 rdf:rest Nb74d2cfb2ffa4c93b7962011f18b5e01
101 N49e971c193774b6693b2453a6d604936 schema:familyName Bracciali
102 schema:givenName Andrea
103 rdf:type schema:Person
104 N50bfd1bca70445ffbebf73c1c52145ab schema:familyName Ryan
105 schema:givenName Peter Y.A.
106 rdf:type schema:Person
107 N6bdc383dad934352b2b2964a145cc1f4 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
108 rdf:type schema:Organization
109 N6bf79209c3464dd78e8f2efc72554a8e rdf:first N04cf202537be4c128ef3f72f78fe12e6
110 rdf:rest N2905b382abb9402ebe3fdfda8797bcf1
111 N73218048b4434e0caba1fcc60f709fdd rdf:first Nc52c7b52615e4fa59cca3fd689c0bf93
112 rdf:rest rdf:nil
113 N76c466e55ed6450abbf6059cc1faf8ac rdf:first sg:person.0743264341.01
114 rdf:rest Ndeefbcd1d36744f5b1afe4bab1f25101
115 N815f6d1f7f8d4c079db62f5252667dc1 schema:familyName Sala
116 schema:givenName Massimiliano
117 rdf:type schema:Person
118 N81b9736ee92c43d599c3ece1a51cced5 schema:familyName Pintore
119 schema:givenName Federico
120 rdf:type schema:Person
121 N84b81f7ac1f04ba4a930c04a6276f5f9 rdf:first Nbd13582386c2449b9e674db205edc0b0
122 rdf:rest N0a91dd8a5fcc4166803c054fe7a72b34
123 N853dac0c18f947c6b34d1610ae972c58 schema:familyName Miller
124 schema:givenName Andrew
125 rdf:type schema:Person
126 N880756eb33ad44ed8141103539ae77f8 schema:isbn 978-3-319-70277-3
127 978-3-319-70278-0
128 schema:name Financial Cryptography and Data Security
129 rdf:type schema:Book
130 N9c43d4ce91754792841e500058a0f27c rdf:first sg:person.015022230121.71
131 rdf:rest N76c466e55ed6450abbf6059cc1faf8ac
132 N9c751c35d2ab461d933331d8b174ffbf schema:familyName Rohloff
133 schema:givenName Kurt
134 rdf:type schema:Person
135 Nb74d2cfb2ffa4c93b7962011f18b5e01 rdf:first N81b9736ee92c43d599c3ece1a51cced5
136 rdf:rest N73218048b4434e0caba1fcc60f709fdd
137 Nbce317b8d8d34b4397690e8fda6b5c0f rdf:first N9c751c35d2ab461d933331d8b174ffbf
138 rdf:rest N84b81f7ac1f04ba4a930c04a6276f5f9
139 Nbd13582386c2449b9e674db205edc0b0 schema:familyName Bonneau
140 schema:givenName Joseph
141 rdf:type schema:Person
142 Nc52c7b52615e4fa59cca3fd689c0bf93 schema:familyName Jakobsson
143 schema:givenName Markus
144 rdf:type schema:Person
145 Ndeefbcd1d36744f5b1afe4bab1f25101 rdf:first sg:person.07757027131.87
146 rdf:rest rdf:nil
147 anzsrc-for:08 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
148 schema:name Information and Computing Sciences
149 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
150 anzsrc-for:0802 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
151 schema:name Computation Theory and Mathematics
152 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
153 sg:person.014311053070.13 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5386.8
154 schema:familyName Daian
155 schema:givenName Philip
156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014311053070.13
157 rdf:type schema:Person
158 sg:person.015022230121.71 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5386.8
159 schema:familyName Eyal
160 schema:givenName Ittay
161 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015022230121.71
162 rdf:type schema:Person
163 sg:person.0743264341.01 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
164 schema:familyName Juels
165 schema:givenName Ari
166 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0743264341.01
167 rdf:type schema:Person
168 sg:person.07757027131.87 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.5386.8
169 schema:familyName Sirer
170 schema:givenName Emin Gün
171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07757027131.87
172 rdf:type schema:Person
173 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, Cornell Tech, New York, USA
174 schema:name Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute, Cornell Tech, New York, USA
175 rdf:type schema:Organization
176 grid-institutes:grid.5386.8 schema:alternateName Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA
177 schema:name Department of Computer Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, USA
178 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...