State of Fitness: Overview of the Clinical Consequences of Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness View Full Text


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Chapter Info

DATE

2017-09-28

AUTHORS

Gregory N. Ruegsegger , Frank W. Booth

ABSTRACT

The United States is unfit for optimal health with its low level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Low CRF clinically translates to markedly higher rates of type 2 diabetes (T2D). While the percentages of obesity (13%) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) (1.6%) were too large in 1960, they have both increased manyfold in the past half century to 36% and 7%, respectively, in 2013 in the United States. Historically, type 2 diabetes (T2D) was rare in youth. In contrast, T2D was an adult disease, appearing after 30 years of age. Around 1990, T2D accounted for less than 3% of adolescent diabetes. Ten years later, it accounted for 45% of youth cases. Physical inactivity decreases CRF, and decreases in CRF increase mortality in T2D. This chapter considers (a) CRF’s association with morbidity and mortality, (b) factors determining CRF, and (c) clinical implications associated with low CRF. Also discussed are associations of low CRF with (a) glucose metabolism, (b) metabolic syndrome, (c) increased prevalence with cardiovascular diseases, and (d) increases in multiple risk factors for increased mortality. The relationship of changes in CRF on changes in the relative risk of death is presented. CRF’s inverse relationships are given with various pathological mechanisms (insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, body composition, obesity, and inflammation). CRF is not fixed at an inheritable level but can be modulated up (by increased physical activity) or down (by physical inactivity, such as sedentary lifestyle). However, genes fix a decline in CRF beginning as early as adolescence. More... »

PAGES

3-16

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-61013-9_1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61013-9_1

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091972905


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