How Gravity and Continuity in UT1 Moved the Greenwich Meridian View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2017-09-26

AUTHORS

Stephen Malys , John H. Seago , Nikolaos K. Pavlis , P. Kenneth Seidelmann , George H. Kaplan

ABSTRACT

The concept of “Greenwich Mean Time,” and its modern equivalent, Universal Time, is based on the changing angle between a “prime meridian” and some point on the celestial sphere. In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference, it was recommended that the prime meridian “to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time-reckoning throughout the globe” pass through the Airy “transit instrument at the Observatory of Greenwich.” Today, observatory visitors must walk approximately 102 m east before their satellite-navigation receivers indicate zero longitude. The need to maintain continuity in Universal Time by the Bureau International de l’Heure, in conjunction with a transition from astronomical to geodetic coordinates by 1984, when optical astronomical methods were replaced by modern techniques, is responsible for this offset. The difference between astronomical and geodetic longitudes is the deflection of the vertical in the east-west direction. Modern techniques enabled the establishment of a global reference frame centered at the center of mass of the Earth, through which the plane of the geodetic prime meridian passes. While the geodetic prime meridian does not intersect the Airy transit instrument at the surface of the Earth, its orientation with respect to the celestial sphere has remained intact. More... »

PAGES

227-241

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091962407


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/09", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0909", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Geomatic Engineering", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.462540.1", 
          "name": [
            "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Malys", 
        "givenName": "Stephen", 
        "id": "sg:person.013445341361.08", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013445341361.08"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Analytical Graphics, Inc., 220 Valley Creek Blvd, 19341-2380, Exton, PA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/None", 
          "name": [
            "Analytical Graphics, Inc., 220 Valley Creek Blvd, 19341-2380, Exton, PA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Seago", 
        "givenName": "John H.", 
        "id": "sg:person.015457135023.36", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015457135023.36"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.462540.1", 
          "name": [
            "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Pavlis", 
        "givenName": "Nikolaos K.", 
        "id": "sg:person.07367464064.52", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07367464064.52"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, 22904, Charlottesville, VA, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.27755.32", 
          "name": [
            "Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, 22904, Charlottesville, VA, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Seidelmann", 
        "givenName": "P. Kenneth", 
        "id": "sg:person.010734525107.39", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010734525107.39"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "United States Naval Observatory (contractor), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, 20392, Washington, DC, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.440354.2", 
          "name": [
            "United States Naval Observatory (contractor), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, 20392, Washington, DC, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Kaplan", 
        "givenName": "George H.", 
        "id": "sg:person.010626726135.99", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010626726135.99"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2017-09-26", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2017-09-26", 
    "description": "The concept of \u201cGreenwich Mean Time,\u201d and its modern equivalent, Universal Time, is based on the changing angle between a \u201cprime meridian\u201d and some point on the celestial sphere. In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference, it was recommended that the prime meridian \u201cto be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time-reckoning throughout the globe\u201d pass through the Airy \u201ctransit instrument at the Observatory of Greenwich.\u201d Today, observatory visitors must walk approximately 102\u00a0m east before their satellite-navigation receivers indicate zero longitude. The need to maintain continuity in Universal Time by the Bureau International de l\u2019Heure, in conjunction with a transition from astronomical to geodetic coordinates by 1984, when optical astronomical methods were replaced by modern techniques, is responsible for this offset. The difference between astronomical and geodetic longitudes is the deflection of the vertical in the east-west direction. Modern techniques enabled the establishment of a global reference frame centered at the center of mass of the Earth, through which the plane of the geodetic prime meridian passes. While the geodetic prime meridian does not intersect the Airy transit instrument at the surface of the Earth, its orientation with respect to the celestial sphere has remained intact.", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Arias", 
        "givenName": "Elisa Felicitas", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Combrinck", 
        "givenName": "Ludwig", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Gabor", 
        "givenName": "Pavel", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Hohenkerk", 
        "givenName": "Catherine", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Seidelmann", 
        "givenName": "P. Kenneth", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28", 
    "inLanguage": "en", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-3-319-59908-3", 
        "978-3-319-59909-0"
      ], 
      "name": "The Science of Time 2016", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "keywords": [
      "global reference frame", 
      "geodetic coordinates", 
      "geodetic longitude", 
      "east-west direction", 
      "reference frame", 
      "universal time", 
      "deflection", 
      "center of mass", 
      "Greenwich meridian", 
      "International Meridian Conference", 
      "astronomical methods", 
      "passes", 
      "modern techniques", 
      "surface", 
      "technique", 
      "transit instrument", 
      "gravity", 
      "celestial sphere", 
      "angle", 
      "prime meridian", 
      "sphere", 
      "offset", 
      "Earth", 
      "plane", 
      "longitude", 
      "time", 
      "direction", 
      "orientation", 
      "receiver", 
      "coordinates", 
      "continuity", 
      "Bureau International de l\u2019Heure", 
      "method", 
      "instrument", 
      "frame", 
      "conjunction", 
      "Airy", 
      "point", 
      "transition", 
      "respect", 
      "concept", 
      "mass", 
      "Observatory", 
      "standards", 
      "Greenwich Mean Time", 
      "meridian", 
      "UT1", 
      "today", 
      "need", 
      "equivalent", 
      "globe", 
      "center", 
      "Greenwich", 
      "East", 
      "differences", 
      "mean time", 
      "establishment", 
      "conference", 
      "modern equivalents", 
      "visitors", 
      "Meridian Conference", 
      "Observatory of Greenwich", 
      "observatory visitors", 
      "satellite-navigation receivers", 
      "International de l\u2019Heure", 
      "de l\u2019Heure", 
      "l\u2019Heure", 
      "optical astronomical methods", 
      "geodetic prime meridian passes", 
      "prime meridian passes", 
      "meridian passes", 
      "geodetic prime meridian", 
      "Airy transit instrument"
    ], 
    "name": "How Gravity and Continuity in UT1 Moved the Greenwich Meridian", 
    "pagination": "227-241", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1091962407"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091962407"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-01-01T19:18", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220101/entities/gbq_results/chapter/chapter_305.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

190 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      98 URIs      91 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28 schema:about anzsrc-for:09
2 anzsrc-for:0909
3 schema:author Nfb5902cd1c254a13bd0426cd4902a569
4 schema:datePublished 2017-09-26
5 schema:datePublishedReg 2017-09-26
6 schema:description The concept of “Greenwich Mean Time,” and its modern equivalent, Universal Time, is based on the changing angle between a “prime meridian” and some point on the celestial sphere. In 1884, at the International Meridian Conference, it was recommended that the prime meridian “to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time-reckoning throughout the globe” pass through the Airy “transit instrument at the Observatory of Greenwich.” Today, observatory visitors must walk approximately 102 m east before their satellite-navigation receivers indicate zero longitude. The need to maintain continuity in Universal Time by the Bureau International de l’Heure, in conjunction with a transition from astronomical to geodetic coordinates by 1984, when optical astronomical methods were replaced by modern techniques, is responsible for this offset. The difference between astronomical and geodetic longitudes is the deflection of the vertical in the east-west direction. Modern techniques enabled the establishment of a global reference frame centered at the center of mass of the Earth, through which the plane of the geodetic prime meridian passes. While the geodetic prime meridian does not intersect the Airy transit instrument at the surface of the Earth, its orientation with respect to the celestial sphere has remained intact.
7 schema:editor N1bde4db3446640769c291a6ef031de68
8 schema:genre chapter
9 schema:inLanguage en
10 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
11 schema:isPartOf N75acdc8b58fc40218657536d9acf76e9
12 schema:keywords Airy
13 Airy transit instrument
14 Bureau International de l’Heure
15 Earth
16 East
17 Greenwich
18 Greenwich Mean Time
19 Greenwich meridian
20 International Meridian Conference
21 International de l’Heure
22 Meridian Conference
23 Observatory
24 Observatory of Greenwich
25 UT1
26 angle
27 astronomical methods
28 celestial sphere
29 center
30 center of mass
31 concept
32 conference
33 conjunction
34 continuity
35 coordinates
36 de l’Heure
37 deflection
38 differences
39 direction
40 east-west direction
41 equivalent
42 establishment
43 frame
44 geodetic coordinates
45 geodetic longitude
46 geodetic prime meridian
47 geodetic prime meridian passes
48 global reference frame
49 globe
50 gravity
51 instrument
52 longitude
53 l’Heure
54 mass
55 mean time
56 meridian
57 meridian passes
58 method
59 modern equivalents
60 modern techniques
61 need
62 observatory visitors
63 offset
64 optical astronomical methods
65 orientation
66 passes
67 plane
68 point
69 prime meridian
70 prime meridian passes
71 receiver
72 reference frame
73 respect
74 satellite-navigation receivers
75 sphere
76 standards
77 surface
78 technique
79 time
80 today
81 transit instrument
82 transition
83 universal time
84 visitors
85 schema:name How Gravity and Continuity in UT1 Moved the Greenwich Meridian
86 schema:pagination 227-241
87 schema:productId N62f8f6d4915742988d3b3998fb58ce0d
88 Ne6c403ab9a9840b99c9381d6b45baff8
89 schema:publisher Na7be3db8b631440e800cf76f935ef7f3
90 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1091962407
91 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28
92 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-01-01T19:18
93 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
94 schema:sdPublisher Nb6a1351c38ca425d9745385a5a89680e
95 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28
96 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
97 sgo:sdDataset chapters
98 rdf:type schema:Chapter
99 N003fa317a6034c77b3f5c778ab29ae0c rdf:first sg:person.015457135023.36
100 rdf:rest Na619f96169754c34ac2b34b1b490d12d
101 N1bde4db3446640769c291a6ef031de68 rdf:first Nad7ac30d26c8453e85643e0b3be7eacd
102 rdf:rest N4fcfb8f845e546f5a8f4db2e3d9b3945
103 N4fcfb8f845e546f5a8f4db2e3d9b3945 rdf:first Nd2a7ba340a1a46d7a2b8753efa248ce3
104 rdf:rest Ne4b84383289845f4a0e01839bd8c57cb
105 N50279d9de8614319834e2798f1717580 schema:familyName Gabor
106 schema:givenName Pavel
107 rdf:type schema:Person
108 N52f451533a024153a6d7d34220148087 rdf:first sg:person.010626726135.99
109 rdf:rest rdf:nil
110 N62f8f6d4915742988d3b3998fb58ce0d schema:name dimensions_id
111 schema:value pub.1091962407
112 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
113 N72339e048f674ba1a9fc78f2bd154cc6 rdf:first Nc464f3b7d6b14e3ca9e96f62283fc1da
114 rdf:rest rdf:nil
115 N75acdc8b58fc40218657536d9acf76e9 schema:isbn 978-3-319-59908-3
116 978-3-319-59909-0
117 schema:name The Science of Time 2016
118 rdf:type schema:Book
119 N9712d412ce454c13a6297d06769fefdd schema:familyName Hohenkerk
120 schema:givenName Catherine
121 rdf:type schema:Person
122 Na619f96169754c34ac2b34b1b490d12d rdf:first sg:person.07367464064.52
123 rdf:rest Nc4597560a912485d8d5b32ec84750d0e
124 Na7be3db8b631440e800cf76f935ef7f3 schema:name Springer Nature
125 rdf:type schema:Organisation
126 Nad7ac30d26c8453e85643e0b3be7eacd schema:familyName Arias
127 schema:givenName Elisa Felicitas
128 rdf:type schema:Person
129 Nb6a1351c38ca425d9745385a5a89680e schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
130 rdf:type schema:Organization
131 Nbbcee1736ae0430ca64ec27784c9512c rdf:first N9712d412ce454c13a6297d06769fefdd
132 rdf:rest N72339e048f674ba1a9fc78f2bd154cc6
133 Nc4597560a912485d8d5b32ec84750d0e rdf:first sg:person.010734525107.39
134 rdf:rest N52f451533a024153a6d7d34220148087
135 Nc464f3b7d6b14e3ca9e96f62283fc1da schema:familyName Seidelmann
136 schema:givenName P. Kenneth
137 rdf:type schema:Person
138 Nd2a7ba340a1a46d7a2b8753efa248ce3 schema:familyName Combrinck
139 schema:givenName Ludwig
140 rdf:type schema:Person
141 Ne4b84383289845f4a0e01839bd8c57cb rdf:first N50279d9de8614319834e2798f1717580
142 rdf:rest Nbbcee1736ae0430ca64ec27784c9512c
143 Ne6c403ab9a9840b99c9381d6b45baff8 schema:name doi
144 schema:value 10.1007/978-3-319-59909-0_28
145 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
146 Nfb5902cd1c254a13bd0426cd4902a569 rdf:first sg:person.013445341361.08
147 rdf:rest N003fa317a6034c77b3f5c778ab29ae0c
148 anzsrc-for:09 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
149 schema:name Engineering
150 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
151 anzsrc-for:0909 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
152 schema:name Geomatic Engineering
153 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
154 sg:person.010626726135.99 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.440354.2
155 schema:familyName Kaplan
156 schema:givenName George H.
157 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010626726135.99
158 rdf:type schema:Person
159 sg:person.010734525107.39 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.27755.32
160 schema:familyName Seidelmann
161 schema:givenName P. Kenneth
162 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010734525107.39
163 rdf:type schema:Person
164 sg:person.013445341361.08 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.462540.1
165 schema:familyName Malys
166 schema:givenName Stephen
167 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.013445341361.08
168 rdf:type schema:Person
169 sg:person.015457135023.36 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:None
170 schema:familyName Seago
171 schema:givenName John H.
172 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.015457135023.36
173 rdf:type schema:Person
174 sg:person.07367464064.52 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.462540.1
175 schema:familyName Pavlis
176 schema:givenName Nikolaos K.
177 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.07367464064.52
178 rdf:type schema:Person
179 grid-institutes:None schema:alternateName Analytical Graphics, Inc., 220 Valley Creek Blvd, 19341-2380, Exton, PA, USA
180 schema:name Analytical Graphics, Inc., 220 Valley Creek Blvd, 19341-2380, Exton, PA, USA
181 rdf:type schema:Organization
182 grid-institutes:grid.27755.32 schema:alternateName Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, 22904, Charlottesville, VA, USA
183 schema:name Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, 22904, Charlottesville, VA, USA
184 rdf:type schema:Organization
185 grid-institutes:grid.440354.2 schema:alternateName United States Naval Observatory (contractor), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, 20392, Washington, DC, USA
186 schema:name United States Naval Observatory (contractor), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, 20392, Washington, DC, USA
187 rdf:type schema:Organization
188 grid-institutes:grid.462540.1 schema:alternateName National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA
189 schema:name National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Dr., 22150, Springfield, VA, USA
190 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...