Palliative Treatments for the Sacrum View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2017-05-31

AUTHORS

Andreas F. Mavrogenis , Georgios N. Panagopoulos , Andrea Angelini , Giuseppe Rossi , Alberto Bazzocchi , Pietro Ruggieri

ABSTRACT

A wide array of tumors can occur in the sacrum. Benign tumors include giant cell tumors (60%), aneurysmal bone cysts (4%), and osteoblastomas [1]. Malignant tumors of the sacrum include chordomas (50%), hematopoietic malignancies (lymphoma and multiple myeloma, 18%), Ewing’s sarcoma in children (8%), chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma [2]. However, the most common malignancy to occur in the sacrum is represented by metastatic tumors [3]. The most frequently implicated primary cancers include breast, lung, prostate, renal and thyroid, lymphoma, melanoma, and tumors of unknown origin follow, but are less common primary locations [4–9]. Spread is mainly by hematogenous dissemination, although direct extension in case of recurrent rectal tumors and drop metastases of intradural tumors have been also described [8, 9]. Sacral metastases are usually diagnosed in advanced stages, when they have already extended beyond bony margins and around sacral nerves and other surrounding structures [3, 10]. They generally grow insidiously causing ambiguous symptoms in the early stages, thus frequently resulting in a delayed diagnosis. More... »

PAGES

353-363

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-51202-0_26

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51202-0_26

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1085719220


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