Acute Appendicitis View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2016-11-10

AUTHORS

Grazia Loretta Buquicchio , Gavina Cuneo , Stefano Giannecchini , Caterina Pizzi , Carmelo Rende , Margherita Trinci

ABSTRACT

Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain that requires surgical intervention in the Western world.Patients with appendicitis may present with a wide variety of symptoms that can lead to confusion and delay in diagnosis and treatment.The delayed diagnosis of appendicitis has severe consequences.The normal appendix is a blind-ended tubular structure (Fig. 10.1) with a diameter of less than 7 mm and a wall thickness of less than 2 mm.There are a variety of other conditions in childhood that occur with abdominal pain that must be differentiated from acute appendicitis; furthermore one-third of children with acute appendicitis have atypical clinical findings so the clinical diagnosis is often not simple.In these patients imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis of suspected appendicitis.The principal imaging technique for evaluating children with suspected appendicitis is graded-compression US. The normal appendix measures 6 mm or less in maximal outer diameter, is compressible, and lacks adjacent inflammatory changes.Although common, acute appendicitis can be a difficult diagnosis because a number of other common pathologic abdominal processes share a similar clinical presentation.Computed tomography (CT) has become the predominant imaging method used to diagnose appendicitis in children in the United States.The diagnosis of appendicitis with CT is made by identifying an abnormal appendix and periappendiceal signs of appendicitis.CT is also more useful than US for evaluating complications of acute appendicitis, such as phlegmon and abscess.Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used to evaluate for abdominal disease without the use of ionizing radiation.The criterion to define the abnormal appendix was the same one used for the detection of the abnormal appendix at CT and US.In conclusion ultrasonography (US) remains the standard imaging technique to investigate acute appendicitis. MR imaging may be used as a complementary examination when US is inconclusive or when it is important to avoid exposure to CT radiation or contrast material in children with signs and symptoms of appendicitis. More... »

PAGES

149-170

Book

TITLE

Imaging Non-traumatic Abdominal Emergencies in Pediatric Patients

ISBN

978-3-319-41865-0
978-3-319-41866-7

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-41866-7_10

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41866-7_10

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033539929


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