Application of Nanoindentation and Microdiffraction to Study Aging Effects in Lead Free Solder Interconnects View Full Text


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Chapter Info

DATE

2016

AUTHORS

Hasnine , Jeffrey C. Suhling , Barton C. Prorok , Michael J. Bozack , Pradeep Lall

ABSTRACT

In this work, we have performed a study on aging effects in actual solder joints extracted from PBGA assemblies using nanoindentation. The tested joints were extracted from 14 × 14 mm PBGA assemblies (0.8 mm ball pitch, 0.46 mm ball diameter) that are part of the iNEMI Characterization of Pb-Free Alloy Alternatives Project (16 different solder joint alloys available). Using nanoindentation techniques, the stress-strain and creep behavior of the aged SAC solder materials were explored at the joint scale for various aging conditions. After aging, the joints were loaded in the nano-indentor, and the load-deformation behavior during indentation has been used to characterize the mechanical properties of the solder joint for various aging conditions including modulus, hardness, and yield stress. Using constant force at max indentation, we have also measured the creep response of the aged and non-aged solder joint materials for various stress levels. With this approach, we have been able to quantify aging effects in joints and correlate their magnitudes to those observed in tensile testing of miniature bulk specimens. Our results have shown that the aging induced degradations of the mechanical properties (modulus, hardness) of single grain SAC305 joints were similar to those seen previously by testing of larger “bulk” solder specimens. However, the degradation of the creep response, while still significant, was less in the solder joints relative to larger uniaxial tensile specimens. This was due to the single grain nature of the joints considered, and the lack of the grain boundary sliding creep mechanism. We have recently extended our work in the nanoindentation area to examine a full test matrix of solder alloys. In particular, we have characterized the effects of silver content on SAC solder aging by testing joints from SAC105, SAC205, SAC305, and SAC405 test boards assembled with the same reflow profile. Our results show that the aging induced mechanical behavior degradations in joints are similar to those found observed in very small tensile specimens with 10–20 grains. These effects are strongest in SAC alloys with low silver content (e.g. SAC105). The observed mechanical behavior changes in joints are due to evolution in the microstructure and residual strains/stresses in the solder material, and measurements of these evolutions are critical to developing a fundamental understanding of solder joint aging phenomena. As another part of this work, we have performed an initial study of these effects in the same SAC305 solder joints that were tested using nanoindentation. The enhanced x-ray microdiffraction technique at the Advanced Light Source (Synchrotron) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was employed to characterize several joints after various aging exposures (0, 1 and 7 days of aging at T = 125 °C). For each joint, microdiffraction was used to examine grain growth, grain rotation, sub-grain formation, and residual strain and stress evolution as a function of the aging exposure. The entire joints were scanned using a 1 micron step size, and the results were correlated with changes in the mechanical response of the joint specimens measured by nanoindentation. More... »

PAGES

73-88

References to SciGraph publications

Book

TITLE

MEMS and Nanotechnology, Volume 5

ISBN

978-3-319-22457-2
978-3-319-22458-9

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-22458-9_11

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-22458-9_11

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022217402


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