Acyl-Carbon Bond Cleaving Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP51A1 View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2015

AUTHORS

Muhammad Akhtar , J. Neville Wright

ABSTRACT

Cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes in their resting state contain the heme-iron in a high-spin FeIII state. Binding of a substrate to a P450 enzyme allows transfer of the first electron, producing a Fe(II) species that reacts with oxygen to generate a low-spin iron superoxide intermediate (FeIII-O-O•) ready to accept the second electron to produce an iron peroxy anion intermediate (a, FeIII-O-O-). In classical monooxygenation reactions, the peroxy anion upon protonation fragments to form the reactive Compound I intermediate (Por•+FeIV=O), or its ferryl radical resonance form (FeIV-O•). However, when the substrate projects a carbonyl functionality, of the type b, at the active site as is the case for reactions catalyzed by CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP51A1, the peroxy anion (FeIII-O-O-) is trapped, yielding a tetrahedral intermediate (c) that fragments to an acyl-carbon cleavage product (d plus an acid). Analogous acyl-carbon cleavage reactions are also catalyzed by certain hepatic P450s and CYP125A1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A further improvisation on the theme is provided by aldehyde deformylases that convert long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to hydrocarbons. CYP17A1 is involved in the biosynthesis of corticoids as well as androgens. The flux toward these two classes of hormones seems to be regulated by cytochrome b 5, at the level of the acyl-carbon cleavage reaction. It is this regulation of CYP17A1 that provides a safety mechanism, ensuring that during corticoid biosynthesis, which requires 17α-hydroxylation by CYP17A1, androgen formation is avoided (Fig. 4.1). More... »

PAGES

107-130

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-16009-2_4

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16009-2_4

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012767662

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26002733


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