Glycogenolysis and Purinergic Signaling View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2014

AUTHORS

Leif Hertz , Junnan Xu , Liang Peng

ABSTRACT

Both ATP and glutamate are on one hand essential metabolites in brain and on the other serve a signaling function as transmitters. However, there is the major difference that the flux in the pathway producing transmitter glutamate is comparable to the rate of glucose metabolism in brain, whereas that producing transmitter ATP is orders of magnitude smaller than the metabolic turnover between ATP and ADP. Moreover, de novo glutamate production occurs exclusively in astrocytes, whereas transmitter ATP is produced both in neurons and astrocytes. This chapter deals only with ATP and exclusively with its formation and release in astrocytes, and it focuses on potential associations with glycogenolysis, which is known to be indispensable for the synthesis of glutamate. Glycogenolysis is dependent upon an increase in free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+)]i). It can be further stimulated by cAMP, but in contrast to widespread beliefs, cAMP can on its own not induce glycogenolysis. Astrocytes generate ATP from accumulated adenosine, and this process does not seem to require glycogenolysis. A minor amount of the generated ATP is utilized as a transmitter, and its synthesis requires the presence of the mainly intracellular nucleoside transporter ENT3. Many transmitters as well as extracellular K(+) concentrations high enough to open the voltage-sensitive L-channels for Ca(2+) cause a release of transmitter ATP from astrocytes. Adenosine and ATP induce release of ATP by action at several different purinergic receptors. The release evoked by transmitters or elevated K(+) concentrations is abolished by DAB, an inhibitor of glycogenolysis. More... »

PAGES

31-54

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  • Book

    TITLE

    Glutamate and ATP at the Interface of Metabolism and Signaling in the Brain

    ISBN

    978-3-319-08893-8
    978-3-319-08894-5

    Author Affiliations

    Identifiers

    URI

    http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-08894-5_3

    DOI

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08894-5_3

    DIMENSIONS

    https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037051876

    PUBMED

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25236723


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