Molecular Imaging of Inflammation Using Echocardiography. Advances with the Use of Microbubbles View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2015

AUTHORS

James S. M. Yeh , Petros Nihoyannopoulos

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound molecular imaging uses microbubbles conjugated with targeting ligands. When administered intravenously these ‘targeting bubbles’ attach to areas expressing the molecule of interest for ultrasound detection. The migration of this technology to human application has been limited by uncertainties regarding its safety and efficacy, including: (i) the lack of targeting bubbles that do not contain immunogenic (strept)avidin for ligand conjugation; (ii) the traditional use of high power ultrasound causing ‘instantaneous’ bubble destruction, raising concerns about biosafety and rendering it not a real-time imaging technique (limiting bedside interpretation); (iii) the absence of robust molecular quantification methods, diminishing its potential diagnostic power. Progress has been made in all three areas recently. An example is molecular imaging of E-selectin expression for detecting endothelial activation or inflammation in the heart. Inflammation underlies important cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary atheromatous heart disease, myocarditis and heart transplant rejection. Endothelial activation occurs early in inflammation and E-selectin is classically expressed only on activated endothelial cells. E-selectin targeting bubbles, based on maleimide-thiol conjugation chemistry, were successfully engineered. They allowed high resolution real-time and quantitative ultrasound molecular imaging of the heart in mice. Future directions in the field includes establishing 3-D ultrasound molecular imaging, and therapies using targeting bubbles as vehicles for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents such as drugs or genetic materials. All these help gather the financial and research momentum required to establish the technology in humans. More... »

PAGES

465-500

Book

TITLE

Introduction to Translational Cardiovascular Research

ISBN

978-3-319-08797-9
978-3-319-08798-6

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-08798-6_24

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08798-6_24

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008618292


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