Innovations to Overcome Staking Challenges to Growing Climbing Beans by Smallholders in Rwanda View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2014-07-16

AUTHORS

A. Musoni , J. Kayumba , L. Butare , F. Mukamuhirwa , E. Murwanashyaka , D. Mukankubana , J. D. Kelly , J. Ininda , D. Gahakwa

ABSTRACT

Climbing beans provide the best option for intensification and the production of surplus beans in Rwanda where arable landholdings are diminished. Shortage of staking wood is a major challenge limiting the wider adoption of the crop. Poor staking or none causes a yield loss of 50–90 %. Due to wood scarcity, this study was undertaken to evaluate feasible and farmer-acceptable innovations that avoid over-reliance on the wood staking while maintaining yield benefits. Six densities at 0 (zero staking), 15,000; 16,670; 20,000; 23,000 poles with trellises and 50,000 poles without trellises/ha−1 (normal practice) were used to stake adapted varieties ISAR-CB-105 (MAC 9) or ISAR-CB-102 (RWV 1129) in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) at six locations: Muhanga, Rubona, Rwerere, Nyagatare, Ngoma and Karama over three seasons in 2009 and 2010. Farmers’ preferences for the staking innovations were assessed for the various treatments at physiological maturity growth stage of the crop. Grain yield differences across the treatments were determined by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) using R- Statistical package. Total grain yields ranged from 180 to 6,200 kg/ha with means from 1,730 to 3,120 kg/ha The lowest value was observed in the zero-staked treatment (control) and the highest in 100 % wood staked (50,000 without trellises). Fully staked plots also produced the highest yields by 87 % across sites and seasons. However, the differences in mean grain yields were statistically insignificant at P(0.001–0.005) between all treatments except for the zero-staked plots where it was significantly lowest. Most farmers (92 %) preferred combinations of 16,670 wood stakes/ha with trellises that reduced the wood requirement by 67 % with a minimal reduction in yield of 6 % of the normal practice control. The fully wood staked treatment ranked fifth with 25 % preference and the zero-staked treatments ranked sixth (last) with 8 % preference. Although a gain in grain yield was important, farmers’ choices depended most on the envisaged availability, labour implication, durability and cost of stakes. Selection criteria were segregated by gender. Environmental concerns were mentioned but featured least. Therefore, although the highest staking density maximized yields, it was viewed as the biggest challenge, especially among women farmers who were, in turn, most comfortable with the use of trellises. A strategic combination of stakes with trellises that caused the maximum reduction of the number of wooden poles and the minimum loss of grain yield benefits/unit area was the most acceptable option to overcome this challenge. Further study to provide empirical evidence of the cost–benefits of the different staking innovations is underway. More... »

PAGES

129-136

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-07662-1_11

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07662-1_11

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039413626


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