The Role of the Placenta in Fetal Programming View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter      Open Access: True


Chapter Info

DATE

2014

AUTHORS

John Challis , Debora Sloboda , Shaofu Li , Thorsten Braun , Frank Bloomfield , Ghazala Begum , Anne White , Felice Petraglia , John Newnham

ABSTRACT

The placenta occupies a critical place in fetal programming by modulating fetal responses to alterations in the maternal environment, by regulating transfer of nutrients between mother and fetus and by responding to changes in environmental stimuli that affect maternal and/or fetal physiology. Placental size and function are exquisitely sensitive to alterations in maternal nutrition, oxygen tension and exposure to glucocorticoids. These factors affect the activity of proteins such as the System A transporter that shuttles neutral amino acids to the fetus, the activity of cells such as those producing placental lactogen, a key metabolic hormone of pregnancy, and the generation of peptides such as the urocortins, members of the corticotrophin releasing hormone family with pro-and anti-inflammatory activities, and placental 11╬▓hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2, which regulates placental metabolism of maternal cortisol. Maternal administration of exogenous synthetic glucocorticoid bypasses this metabolic barrier, programming reductions in fetal body weight and composition, and changing development of the fetal neurologic, pancreatic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, leading to altered stress and inflammatory responses, cardiovascular activity and predisposition to insulin resistance in later life. Interestingly, many of these placental functions appear to be regulated in a manner that is dependent upon the sex of the fetus. More... »

PAGES

57-69

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-02591-9_5

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02591-9_5

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025912734


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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

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N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

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Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

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RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-3-319-02591-9_5'


 

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292 schema:name Faculties of Life Sciences and Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
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294 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9024.f schema:alternateName University of Siena
295 schema:name Division of Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
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297 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.9654.e schema:alternateName University of Auckland
298 schema:name Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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