Calcium, Bone, and Life View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2009-09-30

AUTHORS

Robert P. Heaney

ABSTRACT

Calcium is a divalent mineral cation that functions as an intracellular messenger in virtually all life forms. In multicellular organisms it functions also as an integrator tying body systems together, and in land-living vertebrates it provides the principal mineral component of the endoskeleton (bone). Calcium cannot be synthesized and must be ingested, first to build an adult skeleton and then to maintain it. Because calcium was abundant in the terrestrial vertebrate diet, humans, like most mammals, did not develop mechanisms to absorb or retain calcium efficiently, and human physiology is optimized to defend against calcium excess rather than calcium deficiency. Unfortunately, modern diets have low calcium densities, and for that reason contemporary humans face the threat of calcium deficiency. Since calcium is regularly lost from the body through skin and excreta, it must be replaced with ingested calcium. If not, the body tears down units of bone in order to scavenge their calcium. This is the context in which calcium functions in bone health.This chapter describes the details of the operation of the calcium economy and sets forth calcium intake requirements, the factors that influence them, and calcium sources, both from foods and from supplements. More... »

PAGES

269-300

Book

TITLE

Osteoporosis

ISBN

978-1-934115-19-0
978-1-59745-459-9

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-59745-459-9_11

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-459-9_11

DIMENSIONS

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