Short Oligopeptide T-Cell Epitopes in HIV-1/AIDS Vaccine Development: Current Status, Design, Promises and Challenges View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2017-09-28

AUTHORS

Pandjassarame Kangueane , Kumar Viswapoorani , Christina Nilofer , Subramani Manimegalai , Murugan Sivagamy , Uma Kangueane , Gopichandran Sowmya , Meena Kishore Sakharkar

ABSTRACT

The development of a HIV-1/AIDS vaccine is a technological challenge over the last two decades due to HIV-1 viral diversity, sequence similarity between human and HIV proteins and HIV-1/human host molecular mimicry. The challenges and complexities associated with an ENV-gp120 subunit-based recombinant protein vaccine are discussed in detail for over a decade. Clinical trials using RV144 (Env-gp120, Gag and Pro) candidate vaccine are marginally promising yet unsuccessful. This is attributed to viral mutation, protein size, protein type (unstable membrane protein) and the native structure of glycosylated gp160 as a trimer complex spike on the envelope (ENV). The structural resolution of gp120 trimer spike pre-fusion is highly promising for recombinant vaccine development. However, the production of the native spike trimer complex is a biotechnological challenge for protein engineering, refolding and assembly. Hence, there is a need for the development of an alternative vaccine type for HIV-1/AIDS.It is of interest to design and evaluate a population-driven human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted T-cell-specific gp160 short peptide vaccine candidates for consideration. These are linear short peptides with high stability and long shelf life. The challenges include large degree of known sequence mutations in gp160 and defined HLA polymorphism among ethnic groups (Black, Caucasian, Oriental, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, American Indian, Australian Aboriginal and mixed ethnicities). There are about 10,000 HLA alleles defined at a sequence level and are made available at the IMGT/HLA database (maintained at the EBI, UK). There are also about 283 CD8+ and 197 CD4+ gp160 ENV-derived short peptides known to bind to a range of HLA alleles at the LANL HIV molecular database. This data is a result of manual gathering of HIV-1 epitopes from literature over two decades. This is impressive and promising. However, it is important to select a cocktail of relevant peptides covering a wider range of HLA alleles. The concurrent progress in T-cell epitope design through advancement in sequencing, structure determination and immunological assay is an advantage in vaccine development. The screening based on the prediction of HLA-peptide binding is possible using a robust computer-aided prediction tool, the T-EPITOPE designer. This technology helps generate highly promising vaccine candidates as superantigens (single peptide capable of binding multiple HLA alleles) exhibiting HLA super-type-like property for further in vivo consideration and toxicity evaluation. It should be noted that short peptide-based vaccination is also a reality for the personalized prevention of the disease where the prevalent susceptibility of the infectious agent is clearly ascertained at a molecular level, while HLA typing is feasible for the individual. More... »

PAGES

925-938

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-7290-6_35

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7290-6_35

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1092014734


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