Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2014-11-28

AUTHORS

Robert P. Heaney

ABSTRACT

Bone health is not a mononutrient issue; not only calcium and vitamin D but many other nutrients (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium) are also known to affect the calcium economy and bone status. The contemporary Western diet is generally thought to contain more sodium than our hunter–gatherer ancestors would have consumed, and substantially less potassium. An increase in the filtered load of either sodium or calcium leads to increased clearance of both ions. In fact, urine calcium rises by from 1.0 mmol (40 mg) for every 100 mmol (2,300 mg) sodium ingested. Sodium intake accounts for most of the obligatory urinary loss of calcium from the body and if absorbed calcium is less than the amount needed to offset this loss then bone mass must suffer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Potassium is important to bone health because of its effects on the processes that maintain calcium homeostasis, particularly urinary calcium conservation and excretion. Foods high in potassium generally have an alkaline ash characteristic, including fruits and green and root vegetables which should be increased in the diet. A diet containing an amount of protein adequate for health will also contain adequate phosphorus. The RDA in the U.S. for phosphorus is 700 mg (23 mmol)/day for adults and median intakes for adults are above that level at all ages. Low food phosphorus intake and large calcium supplement doses along with osteoporosis treatments may lead to phosphorus deficiency. The richest dietary source of magnesium is legumes, followed by grains and root and green vegetables. More than 70 % of the adult population in the U.S. falls below recommended intakes of magnesium, but it is unclear whether this shortfall has skeletal consequences. Outside of certain special therapeutic or disease situations, the usually encountered variations in intakes of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium are without major skeletal consequences. More... »

PAGES

379-393

Book

TITLE

Nutrition and Bone Health

ISBN

978-1-4939-2000-6
978-1-4939-2001-3

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009910139


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1116", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical Physiology", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Creighton University, 601 North 30th Street \u2013 Suite 4840, 68131, Omaha, NE, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.254748.8", 
          "name": [
            "Creighton University, 601 North 30th Street \u2013 Suite 4840, 68131, Omaha, NE, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Heaney", 
        "givenName": "Robert P.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0645437522.96", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645437522.96"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2014-11-28", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2014-11-28", 
    "description": "Bone health is not a mononutrient issue; not only calcium and vitamin D but many other nutrients (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium) are also known to affect the calcium economy and bone status. The contemporary Western diet is generally thought to contain more sodium than our hunter\u2013gatherer ancestors would have consumed, and substantially less potassium. An increase in the filtered load of either sodium or calcium leads to increased clearance of both ions. In fact, urine calcium rises by from 1.0 mmol (40 mg) for every 100 mmol (2,300 mg) sodium ingested. Sodium intake accounts for most of the obligatory urinary loss of calcium from the body and if absorbed calcium is less than the amount needed to offset this loss then bone mass must suffer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Potassium is important to bone health because of its effects on the processes that maintain calcium homeostasis, particularly urinary calcium conservation and excretion. Foods high in potassium generally have an alkaline ash characteristic, including fruits and green and root vegetables which should be increased in the diet. A diet containing an amount of protein adequate for health will also contain adequate phosphorus. The RDA in the U.S. for phosphorus is 700 mg (23 mmol)/day for adults and median intakes for adults are above that level at all ages. Low food phosphorus intake and large calcium supplement doses along with osteoporosis treatments may lead to phosphorus deficiency. The richest dietary source of magnesium is legumes, followed by grains and root and green vegetables. More than 70 % of the adult population in the U.S. falls below recommended intakes of magnesium, but it is unclear whether this shortfall has skeletal consequences. Outside of certain special therapeutic or disease situations, the usually encountered variations in intakes of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium are without major skeletal consequences.", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Holick", 
        "givenName": "Michael F.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Nieves", 
        "givenName": "Jeri W.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-1-4939-2000-6", 
        "978-1-4939-2001-3"
      ], 
      "name": "Nutrition and Bone Health", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "keywords": [
      "skeletal consequences", 
      "intake of magnesium", 
      "intake of sodium", 
      "contemporary Western diet", 
      "urine calcium", 
      "postmenopausal women", 
      "bone health", 
      "vitamin D", 
      "calcium economy", 
      "median intake", 
      "osteoporosis treatment", 
      "calcium conservation", 
      "supplement doses", 
      "bone status", 
      "rich dietary source", 
      "Western diet", 
      "bone mass", 
      "filtered load", 
      "urinary loss", 
      "calcium homeostasis", 
      "adult population", 
      "dietary sources", 
      "intake", 
      "more sodium", 
      "disease situation", 
      "diet", 
      "green vegetables", 
      "health", 
      "calcium", 
      "adults", 
      "calcium leads", 
      "hunter-gatherer ancestors", 
      "less potassium", 
      "sodium", 
      "low food", 
      "excretion", 
      "amount of protein", 
      "vegetables", 
      "doses", 
      "clearance", 
      "women", 
      "potassium", 
      "food", 
      "age", 
      "treatment", 
      "root vegetables", 
      "therapeutics", 
      "homeostasis", 
      "deficiency", 
      "status", 
      "loss", 
      "RDA", 
      "population", 
      "magnesium", 
      "levels", 
      "adequate phosphorus", 
      "consequences", 
      "protein", 
      "increase", 
      "effect", 
      "body", 
      "mass", 
      "fruit", 
      "U.S.", 
      "amount", 
      "lead", 
      "characteristics", 
      "nutrients", 
      "situation", 
      "fact", 
      "phosphorus", 
      "issues", 
      "load", 
      "variation", 
      "shortfall", 
      "source", 
      "roots", 
      "process", 
      "legumes", 
      "account", 
      "phosphorus deficiency", 
      "ancestor", 
      "ions", 
      "grains", 
      "conservation", 
      "economy", 
      "ash characteristics"
    ], 
    "name": "Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium", 
    "pagination": "379-393", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1009910139"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009910139"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-08-04T17:17", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20220804/entities/gbq_results/chapter/chapter_23.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

151 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      111 URIs      104 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24 schema:about anzsrc-for:11
2 anzsrc-for:1116
3 schema:author N7b597d9b2ef74bcbab9cd26fb9de197e
4 schema:datePublished 2014-11-28
5 schema:datePublishedReg 2014-11-28
6 schema:description Bone health is not a mononutrient issue; not only calcium and vitamin D but many other nutrients (sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium) are also known to affect the calcium economy and bone status. The contemporary Western diet is generally thought to contain more sodium than our hunter–gatherer ancestors would have consumed, and substantially less potassium. An increase in the filtered load of either sodium or calcium leads to increased clearance of both ions. In fact, urine calcium rises by from 1.0 mmol (40 mg) for every 100 mmol (2,300 mg) sodium ingested. Sodium intake accounts for most of the obligatory urinary loss of calcium from the body and if absorbed calcium is less than the amount needed to offset this loss then bone mass must suffer, particularly in postmenopausal women. Potassium is important to bone health because of its effects on the processes that maintain calcium homeostasis, particularly urinary calcium conservation and excretion. Foods high in potassium generally have an alkaline ash characteristic, including fruits and green and root vegetables which should be increased in the diet. A diet containing an amount of protein adequate for health will also contain adequate phosphorus. The RDA in the U.S. for phosphorus is 700 mg (23 mmol)/day for adults and median intakes for adults are above that level at all ages. Low food phosphorus intake and large calcium supplement doses along with osteoporosis treatments may lead to phosphorus deficiency. The richest dietary source of magnesium is legumes, followed by grains and root and green vegetables. More than 70 % of the adult population in the U.S. falls below recommended intakes of magnesium, but it is unclear whether this shortfall has skeletal consequences. Outside of certain special therapeutic or disease situations, the usually encountered variations in intakes of sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium are without major skeletal consequences.
7 schema:editor Nd71875dacde74c0cb319c4fa51c93d74
8 schema:genre chapter
9 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
10 schema:isPartOf N23e06bedc5ed44099d55e58b907979d8
11 schema:keywords RDA
12 U.S.
13 Western diet
14 account
15 adequate phosphorus
16 adult population
17 adults
18 age
19 amount
20 amount of protein
21 ancestor
22 ash characteristics
23 body
24 bone health
25 bone mass
26 bone status
27 calcium
28 calcium conservation
29 calcium economy
30 calcium homeostasis
31 calcium leads
32 characteristics
33 clearance
34 consequences
35 conservation
36 contemporary Western diet
37 deficiency
38 diet
39 dietary sources
40 disease situation
41 doses
42 economy
43 effect
44 excretion
45 fact
46 filtered load
47 food
48 fruit
49 grains
50 green vegetables
51 health
52 homeostasis
53 hunter-gatherer ancestors
54 increase
55 intake
56 intake of magnesium
57 intake of sodium
58 ions
59 issues
60 lead
61 legumes
62 less potassium
63 levels
64 load
65 loss
66 low food
67 magnesium
68 mass
69 median intake
70 more sodium
71 nutrients
72 osteoporosis treatment
73 phosphorus
74 phosphorus deficiency
75 population
76 postmenopausal women
77 potassium
78 process
79 protein
80 rich dietary source
81 root vegetables
82 roots
83 shortfall
84 situation
85 skeletal consequences
86 sodium
87 source
88 status
89 supplement doses
90 therapeutics
91 treatment
92 urinary loss
93 urine calcium
94 variation
95 vegetables
96 vitamin D
97 women
98 schema:name Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium
99 schema:pagination 379-393
100 schema:productId N386f86c499e74402ba491a393d7438c6
101 N70b897bb1786417489bcf6f3746ee33b
102 schema:publisher N7c831b76614e472abb0062470be8d392
103 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009910139
104 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24
105 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-08-04T17:17
106 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
107 schema:sdPublisher Na1fd4461533f4a138afd4a0228a4e411
108 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24
109 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
110 sgo:sdDataset chapters
111 rdf:type schema:Chapter
112 N23e06bedc5ed44099d55e58b907979d8 schema:isbn 978-1-4939-2000-6
113 978-1-4939-2001-3
114 schema:name Nutrition and Bone Health
115 rdf:type schema:Book
116 N386f86c499e74402ba491a393d7438c6 schema:name dimensions_id
117 schema:value pub.1009910139
118 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
119 N3ff2a259082645849eef9d0c10104c3a schema:familyName Nieves
120 schema:givenName Jeri W.
121 rdf:type schema:Person
122 N67700d7d6c914f63b856b5d8408157bd schema:familyName Holick
123 schema:givenName Michael F.
124 rdf:type schema:Person
125 N70b897bb1786417489bcf6f3746ee33b schema:name doi
126 schema:value 10.1007/978-1-4939-2001-3_24
127 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
128 N7b597d9b2ef74bcbab9cd26fb9de197e rdf:first sg:person.0645437522.96
129 rdf:rest rdf:nil
130 N7c831b76614e472abb0062470be8d392 schema:name Springer Nature
131 rdf:type schema:Organisation
132 Na1fd4461533f4a138afd4a0228a4e411 schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
133 rdf:type schema:Organization
134 Nb42434bfdd884c088fa4e71b3e6a7477 rdf:first N3ff2a259082645849eef9d0c10104c3a
135 rdf:rest rdf:nil
136 Nd71875dacde74c0cb319c4fa51c93d74 rdf:first N67700d7d6c914f63b856b5d8408157bd
137 rdf:rest Nb42434bfdd884c088fa4e71b3e6a7477
138 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
139 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
140 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
141 anzsrc-for:1116 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
142 schema:name Medical Physiology
143 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
144 sg:person.0645437522.96 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.254748.8
145 schema:familyName Heaney
146 schema:givenName Robert P.
147 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0645437522.96
148 rdf:type schema:Person
149 grid-institutes:grid.254748.8 schema:alternateName Creighton University, 601 North 30th Street – Suite 4840, 68131, Omaha, NE, USA
150 schema:name Creighton University, 601 North 30th Street – Suite 4840, 68131, Omaha, NE, USA
151 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...