In Situ Detection of Cytokines in Allergic Inflammation View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

1996

AUTHORS

Q. A. Hamid , E. Minshall

ABSTRACT

It is now clear that T-cell derived cytokines are important chemical mediators of inflammatory response in allergic diseases. According to their particular mRNA expression and cytokine secretion CD4 positive T lymphocytes were divided into T helper-1 (Thl) and T helper-2 (Th2) type cells (1). Thl type cell clones produce IL-2, IFNγ and lymphotoxin whereas Th2 type cell clones produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13. Both T cell subtypes produce IL-3, GM-CSF and TNFα. Thl and Th2 patterns of cytokine expression exhibit reciprocal inhibition via the release of IFNγ and IL-4 respectively. Due to their release of IL-4, Th2 cell clones are involved in immunoglobin production, specifically of the IgE subclass (2). Th2 cytokines are also instrumental in regulating eosinophil differentiation and survival in vitro via the actions of secreted IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF (3). Such effects in vivo may explain the increased tissue survival at the site of allergic inflammation and could also contribute to the inhibition of programmed cell death. It is now clear that T-cells are not the only source of cytokines; eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, macrophages and epithelial cells may also produce cytokines that could be involved in allergic inflammation. Whilst there is growing evidence to suggest that cytokines are playing an important role in initiating and maintaining inflammatory reactions associated with allergic disease in man, to confirm such a role it will be essential to identify the expression of cytokine genes and gene products and to localize cytokine receptors in vivo at the level of the tissue. During the last few years we have been using various methods to identify the in situ expression of cytokines in tissues obtained from asthmatics, allergic rhinitis and individuals with atopic dermatitis. The most widely used techniques to identify the expression of cytokines within tissues are in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. In this chapter, the techniques of in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry will be described in the relation to the localization of cytokine genes and gene products. Examples of the application of these techniques to localize cytokines in tissue obtained from the sites of allergic inflammatory reactions will also be discussed. More... »

PAGES

327-335

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4615-5855-2_46

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-5855-2_46

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005841148

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9095261


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