Basics of Stem Cell Biology as Applied to the Brain View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2016

AUTHORS

Inna Tabansky , Joel N. H. Stern

ABSTRACT

Stem cell technology can allow us to produce human neuronal cell types outside the body, but what exactly are stem cells, and what challenges are associated with their use? Stem cells are a kind of cell that has the capacity to self-renew to produce additional stem cells by mitosis, and also to differentiate into other – more mature – cell types. Stem cells are usually categorized as multipotent (able to give rise to multiple cells within a lineage), pluripotent (able to give rise to all cell types in an adult) and totipotent (able to give rise to all embryonic and adult lineages). Multipotent adult stem cells are found throughout the body, and they include neural stem cells. The challenge in utilizing adult stem cells for disease research is obtaining cells that are genetically matched to people with disease phenotypes, and being able to differentiate them into the appropriate cell types of interest. As adult neural stem cells reside in the brain, their isolation would require considerably invasive and dangerous procedures. In contrast, pluripotent stem cells are easy to obtain, due to the paradigm-shifting work on direct reprogramming of human skin fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells. This work has enabled us to produce neurons that are genetically matched to individual patients. While we are able to isolate pluripotent stem cells from patients in a minimally invasive manner, we do not yet fully understand how to direct these cells to many of the medically important neuronal fates. Progress in this direction continues to be made, on multiple fronts, and it involves using small molecules and proteins to mimic developmentally important signals, as well as building on advances in "reprogramming" to directly convert one cell type into another by forced expression of sets of transcription factors. An additional challenge involves providing these cells with the appropriate environment to induce their normal behavior outside the body. Despite these challenges, the promise of producing human neuronal cell types in vitro gives opportunities for unique insights and is therefore worthwhile. More... »

PAGES

1-17

Book

TITLE

Neuroscience in the 21st Century

ISBN

978-1-4614-6434-1

Author Affiliations

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-6434-1_130-1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6434-1_130-1

DIMENSIONS

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