Viruses in the Human Pancreas View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2013

AUTHORS

S. J. Richardson , A. Willcox , A. J. Bone , N. G. Morgan , A. K. Foulis

ABSTRACT

There is extensive epidemiological evidence highlighting a possible ­aetiological role for enteroviral infection in type 1 diabetes. Direct evidence of the presence of enterovirus in the pancreatic islets of type 1 diabetics is, however, limited, due mainly to the paucity of samples from patients diagnosed recently with the disease. This chapter summarises the evidence implicating enteroviral infection in the human pancreas in type 1 diabetes and considers both factors indicating the presence of virus (viral capsid protein, electron microscopic visualisation of viral particles or expression of viral RNA) and the host response to a viral infection (a “viral footprint”). The relationship of these two indicators of viral infection with two apparently different forms of type 1 diabetes (autoimmune versus fulminant) is discussed. It is hypothesised that differing host responses, and perhaps different genetic variation among the viruses involved, may determine whether an enteroviral infection of beta cells causes (1) A rapid lytic cell death—characteristic of fulminant type 1 diabetes and neonatalcoxsackievirus infection, (2) A persistent infection which evokes an autoimmune reaction to beta cells, eventually resulting in their destruction—autoimmune type 1 diabetes, (3) h little host response and little damage. Overall, it is concluded that the evidence for viral involvement is persuasive but that there is still a long way to go in order to elucidate the precise role of enteroviral infections in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. More... »

PAGES

167-175

Book

TITLE

Diabetes and Viruses

ISBN

978-1-4614-4050-5
978-1-4614-4051-2

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-4051-2_17

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4051-2_17

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021880348


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