Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2012

AUTHORS

James B. Knaak , Curtis C. Dary , Xiaofei Zhang , Robert W. Gerlach , R. Tornero-Velez , Daniel T. Chang , Rocky Goldsmith , Jerry N. Blancato

ABSTRACT

In this review we have examined the status of parameters required by pyrethroid QSAR-PBPK/PD models for assessing health risks. In lieu of the chemical,biological, biochemical, and toxicological information developed on the pyrethroids since 1968, the finding of suitable parameters for QSAR and PBPK/PD model development was a monumental task. The most useful information obtained came from rat toxicokinetic studies (i.e., absorption, distribution, and excretion), metabolism studies with 14C-cyclopropane- and alcohol-labeled pyrethroids, the use of known chiral isomers in the metabolism studies and their relation to commercial products. In this review we identify the individual chiralisomers that have been used in published studies and the chiral HPLC columns available for separating them. Chiral HPLC columns are necessary for isomer identification and for developing kinetic values (Vm,, and Kin) for pyrethroid hydroxylation. Early investigators synthesized analytical standards for key pyrethroid metabolites, and these were used to confirm the identity of urinary etabolites, by using TLC. These analytical standards no longer exist, and muste resynthesized if further studies on the kinetics of the metabolism of pyrethroids are to be undertaken.In an attempt to circumvent the availability of analytical standards, several CYP450 studies were carried out using the substrate depletion method. This approach does not provide information on the products formed downstream, and may be of limited use in developing human environmental exposure PBPK/PD models that require extensive urinary metabolite data. Hydrolytic standards (i.e., alcohols and acids) were available to investigators who studied the carboxylesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of several pyrethroid insecticides. The data generated in these studies are suitable for use in developing human exposure PBPK/PD models.Tissue:blood partition coefficients were developed for the parent pyrethroids and their metabolites, by using a published mechanistic model introduced by Poulin and Thiele (2002a; b) and log DpH 7.4 values. The estimated coefficients, especially those of adipose tissue, were too high and had to be corrected by using a procedure in which the proportion of parent or metabolite residues that are unbound to plasma albumin is considered, as described in the GastroPlus model (Simulations Plus, Inc.,Lancaster, CA). The literature suggested that Km values be adjusted by multiplying Km by the substrate (decimal amount) that is unbound to microsomal or CYPprotein. Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) used flow- and diffusion-limited compartments in their deltamethrin model. The addition of permeability areas (PA) having diffusion limits, such as the fat and slowly perfused compartments, enabled the investigators to bring model predictions in line with in vivo data.There appears to be large differences in the manner and rate of absorption of the pyrethroids from the gastrointestinal tract, implying that GI advanced compartmental transit models (ACAT) need to be included in PBPK models. This is especially true of the absorption of an oral dose of tefluthrin in male rats, in which 3.0-6.9%,41.3-46.3%, and 5.2-15.5% of the dose is eliminated in urine, feces, and bile,respectively (0-48 h after administration). Several percutaneous studies with the pyrethroids strongly support the belief that these insecticides are not readily absorbed, but remain on the surface of the skin until they are washed off. In one articular study (Sidon et al. 1988) the high levels of permethrin absorption through the forehead skin (24-28%) of the monkey was reported over a 7- to 14-days period.Wester et al. (1994) reported an absorption of 1.9% of pyrethrin that had been applied to the forearm of human volunteers over a 7-days period.SAR models capable of predicting the binding of the pyrethroids to plasma and hepatic proteins were developed by Yamazaki and Kanaoka (2004), Saiakhov et al. (2000), Colmenarejo et al. (2001), and Colmenarejo (2003). QikProp(Schrodinger, LLC) was used to obtain Fu values for calculating partition coefficients and for calculating permeation constants (Caco-2, MDCK, and logBBB). ADMET Predictor (Simulations Plus Inc.) provided Vm~,x and Km values for the hydroxylation of drugs/pyrethroids by human liver recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes making the values available for possible use in PBPK/PD models.The Caco-2 permeability constants and CYP3A4 Vmax and Km values are needed in PBPK/PD models with GI ACAT sub models. Modeling work by Chang et al.(2009) produced rate constants (kcat) for the hydrolysis of pyrethroids by rat serumcarboxylesterases. The skin permeation model of Potts and Guy (1992) was used topredict K, values for the dermal absorption of the 15 pyrethroids.The electrophysiological studies by Narahashi (1971) and others (Breckenridgeet al. 2009; Shafer et al. 2005; Soderlund et al. 2002; Wolansky and Harrill 2008)demonstrated that the mode of action of pyrethroids on nerves is to interfere with the changes in sodium and potassium ion currents. The pyrethroids, being highly lipid soluble, are bound or distributed in lipid bilayers of the nerve cell membrane and exert their action on sodium channel proteins. The rising phase of the action potential is caused by sodium influx (sodium activation), while the falling phase is caused by sodium activation being turned off, and an increase in potassium efflux(potassium activation). The action of allethrin and other pyrethroids is caused by an inhibition or block of the normal currents. An equation by Tatebayashi and Narahashi (1994) that describes the action of pyrethroids on sodium channels was found in the literature. This equation, or some variation of it, may be suitable for use in the PD portion of pyrethroid PBPK models. More... »

PAGES

1-114

References to SciGraph publications

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045561912

PUBMED

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22610175


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/1115", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/11", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Medical and Health Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Animals", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Humans", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Insecticides", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Male", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Models, Biological", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Molecular Structure", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Pyrethrins", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Rats", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "inDefinedTermSet": "https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/", 
        "name": "Risk Assessment", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "University at Buffalo, State University of New York", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.273335.3", 
          "name": [
            "Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY\u00a014214, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Knaak", 
        "givenName": "James B.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0612315773.37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0612315773.37"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "name": [
            "Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 944 East Harmon Avenue, Las Vegas, NV\u00a089193-3478, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Dary", 
        "givenName": "Curtis C.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01370053355.77", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01370053355.77"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "name": [
            "General Dynamics Information Technology, 181 North Arroyo Grande Boulevard, Suite 105A, Henderson, NV\u00a089074-1624, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Zhang", 
        "givenName": "Xiaofei", 
        "id": "sg:person.01142364601.37", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142364601.37"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "name": [
            "General Dynamics Information Technology, 181 North Arroyo Grande Boulevard, Suite 105A, Henderson, NV\u00a089074-1624, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Gerlach", 
        "givenName": "Robert W.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Environmental Protection Agency", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a", 
          "name": [
            "National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC\u00a027709, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Tornero-Velez", 
        "givenName": "R.", 
        "id": "sg:person.01160447627.07", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01160447627.07"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Environmental Protection Agency", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a", 
          "name": [
            "National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC\u00a027709, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Chang", 
        "givenName": "Daniel T.", 
        "id": "sg:person.0761273444.29", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761273444.29"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Environmental Protection Agency", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a", 
          "name": [
            "National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC\u00a027709, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Goldsmith", 
        "givenName": "Rocky", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Environmental Protection Agency", 
          "id": "https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a", 
          "name": [
            "National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC\u00a027709, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Blancato", 
        "givenName": "Jerry N.", 
        "id": "sg:person.010172377737.58", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010172377737.58"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "citation": [
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(96)00415-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000841240"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.37.2681", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000873835"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001234191", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001234191", 
          "https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2010.11.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001360403"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1971.10665987", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001405491"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.058792", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001416061"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.169", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001863902"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001905938", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001905938", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90087-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001976633"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.015388", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002164778"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20322", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002238118"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.30.12.1497", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002252639"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-73163-6_3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002313040", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73163-6_3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(91)90448-k", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002796838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(91)90448-k", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002796838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.10.008", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002872780"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259609046700", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003294704"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7254", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003309322"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfl056", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003466349"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.03.028", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003622474"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(89)90460-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004223644"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(89)90460-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004223644"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm232", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004654860"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(96)00009-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004710281"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(89)90137-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005789780"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1988.sp016916", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005981997"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh027", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006191972"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(96)00652-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006258918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780170513", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006395835"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390802271608", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006505979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20059", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006752532"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:35", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006803286", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-519-0:35"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02275888", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007022491", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02275888"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02275888", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007022491", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02275888"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9210-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007851573", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9210-3"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s002040050373", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007878025", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s002040050373"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.021", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008182950"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.021", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008182950"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(86)80136-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008645681"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110216", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008826345"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(94)90520-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008897832"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/js9803205", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009224736"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(90)90572-g", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009287868"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01881.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009869968"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258309052238", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010893868"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/b202996k", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010973196"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199801)52:1<3::aid-ps689>3.0.co;2-v", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010993674"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01986006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011508496", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01986006"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01986006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011508496", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01986006"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00498250600683262", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012434918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.jea.7500257", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012550708", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500257"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/sj.jea.7500257", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012550708", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500257"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012613154", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012613154"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258709043943", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012704274"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2004.09.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012710651"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-440x(99)00037-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012816598"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440490432250", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012890358"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4899-1262-6_18", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013013812", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1262-6_18"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(96)00184-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013155826"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1520-6017(200001)89:1<16::aid-jps3>3.0.co;2-e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013207612"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.4.143", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013360063"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498250903568504", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013421813"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/an9911601221", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013429758"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(85)90129-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013469777"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.20.1745", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013892598"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20804", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014535928"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.06.075", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014645232"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2007.03.040", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015905492"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2009.10.052", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016358957"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90068-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016548705"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/213493a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017215411", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/213493a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb1978.14.341", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017242878"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597240127", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017780013"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1897/05-334r.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017862802"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1897/07-134.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017967267"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.04.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018513308"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008723723679", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018555727", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008723723679"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449109019570", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018673048"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.09.030", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018756649"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2005.11.020", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018978119"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0408847102", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019001612"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019767464", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019767464", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/15287398809531107", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019971949"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1365/s10337-004-0254-4", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020672003", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-004-0254-4"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.06.009", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020954941"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20502", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021366561"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.23.010178.002303", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021468849"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(97)00174-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021594732"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.105.007658", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021600209"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22078", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022087897"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/cbir.1997.0219", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022211838"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780120406", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022731126"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409038676", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022835238"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1521-4168(19980301)21:3<189::aid-jhrc189>3.0.co;2-3", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023181451"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.012427", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023324876"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.061770", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023452087"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1998.8485", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023484677"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597239859", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023495704"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002873", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024898931"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03814.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025031683"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/10717540601036849", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025132496"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780270403", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025301971"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.1156", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025426113"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(03)00566-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025439275"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(03)00566-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025439275"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80346-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025446799"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258809041697", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026200969"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.2600751115", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026239142"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.317", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026440552"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/66.1.34", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026451680"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1995.1021", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026460730"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(95)11999-d", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026755671"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.38.1.257", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027593083"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.12.385", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027691973"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02220819", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027983181", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02220819"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf02220819", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027983181", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02220819"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259209049904", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028830421"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(82)90149-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029216865"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.022343", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029439074"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029671350"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(80)90054-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030100655"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(80)90054-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030100655"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(02)00655-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030123142"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(02)00655-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030123142"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03366-s", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030383144"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq051", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030569285"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20856", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030881585"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1984.tb04363.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031395943"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110211", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032010129"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.425", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032221698"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01721861", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032328148", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01721861"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01721861", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032328148", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01721861"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780080602", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032985409"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2007.10.005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032999946"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/00984100290071171", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033368965"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-2333(02)00003-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033449141"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.010058", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033484918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.45.1509", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033916937"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-008x(96)80003-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034364617"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1016/j.clpt.2004.07.001", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035119354", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clpt.2004.07.001"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20122", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035239614"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(74)90137-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035755035"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00854-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036407525"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00854-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036407525"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.03.015", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036837983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-483x(01)00569-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037614002"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(01)00179-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037614035"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m403673200", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037684068"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)89339-0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037759133"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037773561"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037773561"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.006205", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038818237"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(71)90161-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039257143"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03356-p", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039301295"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.38.881", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039375798"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.03965.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040700572"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-6429-1_2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040947362", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6429-1_2"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)00890-l", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041356371"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/faat.1994.1059", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041364631"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.259", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041611232"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.10.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043127787"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.10.003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043127787"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(93)90146-n", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043214138"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(93)90146-n", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043214138"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1039/cs9780700473", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043230655"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/248710a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043357151", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/248710a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-0590(86)90094-1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043739341"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379701300401", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043959433"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379701300401", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043959433"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/med.10039", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044028285"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.034", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045330827"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.034", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045330827"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.1.151", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045520162"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199908)55:8<775::aid-ps27>3.0.co;2-n", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045581730"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043250", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045644883"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.12.6456", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046647961"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.r10-02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046656048"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.r10-02", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046656048"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(01)00744-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046780759"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/46.9.783", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047178401"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(92)90150-j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047201590"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(92)90150-j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047201590"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10128", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047467302"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1967.01610040091018", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047474702"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)91472-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047602679"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.03.002", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047755398"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(76)90060-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048152098"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03070.x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048247983"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000012155.27488.2b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048503581", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000012155.27488.2b"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20423", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048988650"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(84)90036-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049658534"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(84)90036-x", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049658534"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)83746-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049786036"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2697(03)00002-2", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050460922"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6413", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050664556"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9020-7", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050857082", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9020-7"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043283", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050895309"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1038/230326a0", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051087095", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1038/230326a0"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1997.8156", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051195451"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1897/04-457r.1", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051365197"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.237", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051479918"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01685914", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482900", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01685914"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf01685914", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482900", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01685914"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00665-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051681238"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:203", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051839513", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-519-0:203"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.2312", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051873843"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.08.021", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052011347"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374367-1.00076-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052366808"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2007.03.016", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052432114"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(01)00440-6", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052549962"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00755600", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052701283", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00755600"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/bf00755600", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052701283", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00755600"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2011.534423", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052731882"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)01414-5", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052815936"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(02)00714-9", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054578346"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ci049718e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055401848"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ci049718e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055401848"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ci600248e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055404069"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ci600248e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055404069"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/es052025+", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055498686"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/es052025+", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055498686"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00226a005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055715782"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01300a079", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055790255"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00092a043", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896329"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a033", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896790"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00106a004", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896970"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00112a003", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055897347"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00117a030", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055897700"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00125a050", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055898260"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60180a057", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055921390"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60197a022", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922302"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60204a007", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922685"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60209a005", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922979"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60213a006", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923232"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60218a060", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923620"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60224a070", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923984"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm010960b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055946900"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm010960b", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055946900"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm049011j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055948836"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm049011j", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055948836"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm970530e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055958449"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/jm970530e", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055958449"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/mp050018m", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056212117"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1021/mp050018m", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056212117"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1081/jlc-120030174", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058433191"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/14.12.2531", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059450538"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/7.6.433", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059931323"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.80.021917", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060739364"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.80.021917", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060739364"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4079.1235", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062506762"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.761415", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064742328"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7721285", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064742555"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1615/critrevtherdrugcarriersyst.v14.i3.20", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068133183"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/138920007779315053", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069175604"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.2174/138945008785132420", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069180680"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/s00420-003-0451-8", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075306402", 
          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0451-8"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/0471435139.tox086", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090062550"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "https://doi.org/10.1002/0471435139.tox086", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090062550"
        ], 
        "type": "CreativeWork"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2012", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2012-01-01", 
    "description": "In this review we have examined the status of parameters required by pyrethroid QSAR-PBPK/PD models for assessing health risks. In lieu of the chemical,biological, biochemical, and toxicological information developed on the pyrethroids since 1968, the finding of suitable parameters for QSAR and PBPK/PD model development was a monumental task. The most useful information obtained came from rat toxicokinetic studies (i.e., absorption, distribution, and excretion), metabolism studies with 14C-cyclopropane- and alcohol-labeled pyrethroids, the use of known chiral isomers in the metabolism studies and their relation to commercial products. In this review we identify the individual chiralisomers that have been used in published studies and the chiral HPLC columns available for separating them. Chiral HPLC columns are necessary for isomer identification and for developing kinetic values (Vm,, and Kin) for pyrethroid hydroxylation. Early investigators synthesized analytical standards for key pyrethroid metabolites, and these were used to confirm the identity of urinary etabolites, by using TLC. These analytical standards no longer exist, and muste resynthesized if further studies on the kinetics of the metabolism of pyrethroids are to be undertaken.In an attempt to circumvent the availability of analytical standards, several CYP450 studies were carried out using the substrate depletion method. This approach does not provide information on the products formed downstream, and may be of limited use in developing human environmental exposure PBPK/PD models that require extensive urinary metabolite data. Hydrolytic standards (i.e., alcohols and acids) were available to investigators who studied the carboxylesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of several pyrethroid insecticides. The data generated in these studies are suitable for use in developing human exposure PBPK/PD models.Tissue:blood partition coefficients were developed for the parent pyrethroids and their metabolites, by using a published mechanistic model introduced by Poulin and Thiele (2002a; b) and log DpH 7.4 values. The estimated coefficients, especially those of adipose tissue, were too high and had to be corrected by using a procedure in which the proportion of parent or metabolite residues that are unbound to plasma albumin is considered, as described in the GastroPlus model (Simulations Plus, Inc.,Lancaster, CA). The literature suggested that Km values be adjusted by multiplying Km by the substrate (decimal amount) that is unbound to microsomal or CYPprotein. Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) used flow- and diffusion-limited compartments in their deltamethrin model. The addition of permeability areas (PA) having diffusion limits, such as the fat and slowly perfused compartments, enabled the investigators to bring model predictions in line with in vivo data.There appears to be large differences in the manner and rate of absorption of the pyrethroids from the gastrointestinal tract, implying that GI advanced compartmental transit models (ACAT) need to be included in PBPK models. This is especially true of the absorption of an oral dose of tefluthrin in male rats, in which 3.0-6.9%,41.3-46.3%, and 5.2-15.5% of the dose is eliminated in urine, feces, and bile,respectively (0-48 h after administration). Several percutaneous studies with the pyrethroids strongly support the belief that these insecticides are not readily absorbed, but remain on the surface of the skin until they are washed off. In one articular study (Sidon et al. 1988) the high levels of permethrin absorption through the forehead skin (24-28%) of the monkey was reported over a 7- to 14-days period.Wester et al. (1994) reported an absorption of 1.9% of pyrethrin that had been applied to the forearm of human volunteers over a 7-days period.SAR models capable of predicting the binding of the pyrethroids to plasma and hepatic proteins were developed by Yamazaki and Kanaoka (2004), Saiakhov et al. (2000), Colmenarejo et al. (2001), and Colmenarejo (2003). QikProp(Schrodinger, LLC) was used to obtain Fu values for calculating partition coefficients and for calculating permeation constants (Caco-2, MDCK, and logBBB). ADMET Predictor (Simulations Plus Inc.) provided Vm~,x and Km values for the hydroxylation of drugs/pyrethroids by human liver recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes making the values available for possible use in PBPK/PD models.The Caco-2 permeability constants and CYP3A4 Vmax and Km values are needed in PBPK/PD models with GI ACAT sub models. Modeling work by Chang et al.(2009) produced rate constants (kcat) for the hydrolysis of pyrethroids by rat serumcarboxylesterases. The skin permeation model of Potts and Guy (1992) was used topredict K, values for the dermal absorption of the 15 pyrethroids.The electrophysiological studies by Narahashi (1971) and others (Breckenridgeet al. 2009; Shafer et al. 2005; Soderlund et al. 2002; Wolansky and Harrill 2008)demonstrated that the mode of action of pyrethroids on nerves is to interfere with the changes in sodium and potassium ion currents. The pyrethroids, being highly lipid soluble, are bound or distributed in lipid bilayers of the nerve cell membrane and exert their action on sodium channel proteins. The rising phase of the action potential is caused by sodium influx (sodium activation), while the falling phase is caused by sodium activation being turned off, and an increase in potassium efflux(potassium activation). The action of allethrin and other pyrethroids is caused by an inhibition or block of the normal currents. An equation by Tatebayashi and Narahashi (1994) that describes the action of pyrethroids on sodium channels was found in the literature. This equation, or some variation of it, may be suitable for use in the PD portion of pyrethroid PBPK models.", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Whitacre", 
        "givenName": "David M.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1", 
    "inLanguage": [
      "en"
    ], 
    "isAccessibleForFree": false, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-1-4614-3280-7", 
        "978-1-4614-3281-4"
      ], 
      "name": "Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "name": "Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment", 
    "pagination": "1-114", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "readcube_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "d9082e565d6c151bf6bdf804fe6ce7d004767ba8347bf2da166ce85469a8b57d"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1045561912"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "pubmed_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "22610175"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "location": "New York, NY", 
      "name": "Springer New York", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045561912"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2019-04-15T18:00", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-uberresearch-data-dimensions-target-20181106-alternative/cleanup/v134/2549eaecd7973599484d7c17b260dba0a4ecb94b/merge/v9/a6c9fde33151104705d4d7ff012ea9563521a3ce/jats-lookup/v90/0000000001_0000000264/records_8681_00000078.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

876 TRIPLES      23 PREDICATES      266 URIs      31 LITERALS      19 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1 schema:about N0b4ce95f6ae64b84ad888e9ea646e118
2 N55e6db84b1ac4531adbff95338081adb
3 N69dd7cc1d83f46bf8a3bcb1c8c59f9ee
4 N76af641f4bd84baeafea9d1516bb9810
5 N7b543348d74a448b9b9b8dfb3ac4b43c
6 N7f86e8cd7da043bc901649127f339285
7 N8c13797be817446fad31af5f6a7c05da
8 Nc7e73340dc054d869544c272c8906950
9 Nd462343779f44e0ca4b7b668ff45433e
10 Nddb73761899f4271bd16a673cd637086
11 anzsrc-for:11
12 anzsrc-for:1115
13 schema:author N630a2858073c4160a0533c02d3eaf4fa
14 schema:citation sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-73163-6_3
15 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1
16 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-6429-1_2
17 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4899-1262-6_18
18 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00755600
19 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01685914
20 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01721861
21 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01986006
22 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02220819
23 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02275888
24 sg:pub.10.1007/s002040050373
25 sg:pub.10.1007/s00420-003-0451-8
26 sg:pub.10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5
27 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9020-7
28 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9210-3
29 sg:pub.10.1016/j.clpt.2004.07.001
30 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008723723679
31 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000012155.27488.2b
32 sg:pub.10.1038/213493a0
33 sg:pub.10.1038/230326a0
34 sg:pub.10.1038/248710a0
35 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.jea.7500257
36 sg:pub.10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548
37 sg:pub.10.1365/s10337-004-0254-4
38 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:203
39 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:35
40 sg:pub.10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003
41 https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1967.01610040091018
42 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199801)52:1<3::aid-ps689>3.0.co;2-v
43 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199908)55:8<775::aid-ps27>3.0.co;2-n
44 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1520-6017(200001)89:1<16::aid-jps3>3.0.co;2-e
45 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1521-4168(19980301)21:3<189::aid-jhrc189>3.0.co;2-3
46 https://doi.org/10.1002/0471435139.tox086
47 https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20122
48 https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20423
49 https://doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.1156
50 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10005
51 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10128
52 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20059
53 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20322
54 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20502
55 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20804
56 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20856
57 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22078
58 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.2600751115
59 https://doi.org/10.1002/med.10039
60 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780080602
61 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110211
62 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110216
63 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780120406
64 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780170513
65 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780270403
66 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.2312
67 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6413
68 https://doi.org/10.1006/cbir.1997.0219
69 https://doi.org/10.1006/faat.1994.1059
70 https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1995.1021
71 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1997.8156
72 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1998.8485
73 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(90)90572-g
74 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(89)90460-7
75 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(93)90146-n
76 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(94)90520-7
77 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)00890-l
78 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00665-6
79 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(74)90137-9
80 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(82)90149-1
81 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(89)90137-3
82 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(71)90161-1
83 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90068-6
84 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90087-x
85 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(76)90060-2
86 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(85)90129-4
87 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(96)00009-9
88 https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-0590(86)90094-1
89 https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(84)90036-x
90 https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(92)90150-j
91 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(95)11999-d
92 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(91)90448-k
93 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03356-p
94 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03366-s
95 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(80)90054-x
96 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374367-1.00076-8
97 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.08.021
98 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2005.11.020
99 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2007.03.040
100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2009.10.052
101 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.03.015
102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.06.075
103 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.03.028
104 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.09.030
105 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.002
106 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2007.10.005
107 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.06.009
108 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.10.003
109 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.021
110 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.03.002
111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.034
112 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2004.09.001
113 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.10.008
114 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2007.03.016
115 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.04.002
116 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2010.11.003
117 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2697(03)00002-2
118 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(86)80136-x
119 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80346-2
120 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(02)00714-9
121 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)83746-2
122 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)91472-9
123 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)01414-5
124 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)89339-0
125 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(96)00652-8
126 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-008x(96)80003-2
127 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00854-8
128 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(01)00744-6
129 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(96)00184-2
130 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(02)00655-1
131 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(01)00179-x
132 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(96)00415-2
133 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-483x(01)00569-8
134 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(01)00440-6
135 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(97)00174-6
136 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-2333(02)00003-6
137 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-440x(99)00037-8
138 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(03)00566-x
139 https://doi.org/10.1021/ci049718e
140 https://doi.org/10.1021/ci600248e
141 https://doi.org/10.1021/es052025+
142 https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00226a005
143 https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01300a079
144 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00092a043
145 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a033
146 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00106a004
147 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00112a003
148 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00117a030
149 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00125a050
150 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60180a057
151 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60197a022
152 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60204a007
153 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60209a005
154 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60213a006
155 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60218a060
156 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60224a070
157 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm010960b
158 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm049011j
159 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm970530e
160 https://doi.org/10.1021/js9803205
161 https://doi.org/10.1021/mp050018m
162 https://doi.org/10.1039/an9911601221
163 https://doi.org/10.1039/b202996k
164 https://doi.org/10.1039/cs9780700473
165 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01881.x
166 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0408847102
167 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.12.6456
168 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m403673200
169 https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1971.10665987
170 https://doi.org/10.1080/00498250600683262
171 https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597239859
172 https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597240127
173 https://doi.org/10.1080/00984100290071171
174 https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440490432250
175 https://doi.org/10.1080/10717540601036849
176 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390802271608
177 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2011.534423
178 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287398809531107
179 https://doi.org/10.1081/jlc-120030174
180 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/14.12.2531
181 https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/46.9.783
182 https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/7.6.433
183 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/66.1.34
184 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh027
185 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfl056
186 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm232
187 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq051
188 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.80.021917
189 https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548
190 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03070.x
191 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03814.x
192 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.03965.x
193 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1984.tb04363.x
194 https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1988.sp016916
195 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.105.007658
196 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.010058
197 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.012427
198 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.015388
199 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.022343
200 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.30.12.1497
201 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.058792
202 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.061770
203 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.006205
204 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4079.1235
205 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.23.010178.002303
206 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.38.1.257
207 https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379701300401
208 https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb1978.14.341
209 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.37.2681
210 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.38.881
211 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.45.1509
212 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002873
213 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7254
214 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.761415
215 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7721285
216 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.1.151
217 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.12.385
218 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.4.143
219 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.169
220 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.317
221 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.425
222 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.237
223 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.259
224 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.r10-02
225 https://doi.org/10.1615/critrevtherdrugcarriersyst.v14.i3.20
226 https://doi.org/10.1897/04-457r.1
227 https://doi.org/10.1897/05-334r.1
228 https://doi.org/10.1897/07-134.1
229 https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.20.1745
230 https://doi.org/10.2174/138920007779315053
231 https://doi.org/10.2174/138945008785132420
232 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498250903568504
233 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258309052238
234 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258709043943
235 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258809041697
236 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259209049904
237 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409038676
238 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043250
239 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043283
240 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259609046700
241 https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449109019570
242 schema:datePublished 2012
243 schema:datePublishedReg 2012-01-01
244 schema:description In this review we have examined the status of parameters required by pyrethroid QSAR-PBPK/PD models for assessing health risks. In lieu of the chemical,biological, biochemical, and toxicological information developed on the pyrethroids since 1968, the finding of suitable parameters for QSAR and PBPK/PD model development was a monumental task. The most useful information obtained came from rat toxicokinetic studies (i.e., absorption, distribution, and excretion), metabolism studies with 14C-cyclopropane- and alcohol-labeled pyrethroids, the use of known chiral isomers in the metabolism studies and their relation to commercial products. In this review we identify the individual chiralisomers that have been used in published studies and the chiral HPLC columns available for separating them. Chiral HPLC columns are necessary for isomer identification and for developing kinetic values (Vm,, and Kin) for pyrethroid hydroxylation. Early investigators synthesized analytical standards for key pyrethroid metabolites, and these were used to confirm the identity of urinary etabolites, by using TLC. These analytical standards no longer exist, and muste resynthesized if further studies on the kinetics of the metabolism of pyrethroids are to be undertaken.In an attempt to circumvent the availability of analytical standards, several CYP450 studies were carried out using the substrate depletion method. This approach does not provide information on the products formed downstream, and may be of limited use in developing human environmental exposure PBPK/PD models that require extensive urinary metabolite data. Hydrolytic standards (i.e., alcohols and acids) were available to investigators who studied the carboxylesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of several pyrethroid insecticides. The data generated in these studies are suitable for use in developing human exposure PBPK/PD models.Tissue:blood partition coefficients were developed for the parent pyrethroids and their metabolites, by using a published mechanistic model introduced by Poulin and Thiele (2002a; b) and log DpH 7.4 values. The estimated coefficients, especially those of adipose tissue, were too high and had to be corrected by using a procedure in which the proportion of parent or metabolite residues that are unbound to plasma albumin is considered, as described in the GastroPlus model (Simulations Plus, Inc.,Lancaster, CA). The literature suggested that Km values be adjusted by multiplying Km by the substrate (decimal amount) that is unbound to microsomal or CYPprotein. Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) used flow- and diffusion-limited compartments in their deltamethrin model. The addition of permeability areas (PA) having diffusion limits, such as the fat and slowly perfused compartments, enabled the investigators to bring model predictions in line with in vivo data.There appears to be large differences in the manner and rate of absorption of the pyrethroids from the gastrointestinal tract, implying that GI advanced compartmental transit models (ACAT) need to be included in PBPK models. This is especially true of the absorption of an oral dose of tefluthrin in male rats, in which 3.0-6.9%,41.3-46.3%, and 5.2-15.5% of the dose is eliminated in urine, feces, and bile,respectively (0-48 h after administration). Several percutaneous studies with the pyrethroids strongly support the belief that these insecticides are not readily absorbed, but remain on the surface of the skin until they are washed off. In one articular study (Sidon et al. 1988) the high levels of permethrin absorption through the forehead skin (24-28%) of the monkey was reported over a 7- to 14-days period.Wester et al. (1994) reported an absorption of 1.9% of pyrethrin that had been applied to the forearm of human volunteers over a 7-days period.SAR models capable of predicting the binding of the pyrethroids to plasma and hepatic proteins were developed by Yamazaki and Kanaoka (2004), Saiakhov et al. (2000), Colmenarejo et al. (2001), and Colmenarejo (2003). QikProp(Schrodinger, LLC) was used to obtain Fu values for calculating partition coefficients and for calculating permeation constants (Caco-2, MDCK, and logBBB). ADMET Predictor (Simulations Plus Inc.) provided Vm~,x and Km values for the hydroxylation of drugs/pyrethroids by human liver recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes making the values available for possible use in PBPK/PD models.The Caco-2 permeability constants and CYP3A4 Vmax and Km values are needed in PBPK/PD models with GI ACAT sub models. Modeling work by Chang et al.(2009) produced rate constants (kcat) for the hydrolysis of pyrethroids by rat serumcarboxylesterases. The skin permeation model of Potts and Guy (1992) was used topredict K, values for the dermal absorption of the 15 pyrethroids.The electrophysiological studies by Narahashi (1971) and others (Breckenridgeet al. 2009; Shafer et al. 2005; Soderlund et al. 2002; Wolansky and Harrill 2008)demonstrated that the mode of action of pyrethroids on nerves is to interfere with the changes in sodium and potassium ion currents. The pyrethroids, being highly lipid soluble, are bound or distributed in lipid bilayers of the nerve cell membrane and exert their action on sodium channel proteins. The rising phase of the action potential is caused by sodium influx (sodium activation), while the falling phase is caused by sodium activation being turned off, and an increase in potassium efflux(potassium activation). The action of allethrin and other pyrethroids is caused by an inhibition or block of the normal currents. An equation by Tatebayashi and Narahashi (1994) that describes the action of pyrethroids on sodium channels was found in the literature. This equation, or some variation of it, may be suitable for use in the PD portion of pyrethroid PBPK models.
245 schema:editor N22665d088a314a85b44c78a947c6a7b7
246 schema:genre chapter
247 schema:inLanguage en
248 schema:isAccessibleForFree false
249 schema:isPartOf N65d523587de144559c653e958b783863
250 schema:name Parameters for Pyrethroid Insecticide QSAR and PBPK/PD Models for Human Risk Assessment
251 schema:pagination 1-114
252 schema:productId N3bcfe91c4952422bae33f5ae14a4be22
253 N4761eeb511c14ba6943ed5da262f758b
254 N80d156fd910c42c99f61bae727eb2db7
255 Nfa7d7be991f545f4934c7d582fb3c215
256 schema:publisher N000e835b5afc43589cfa217c46043854
257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045561912
258 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1
259 schema:sdDatePublished 2019-04-15T18:00
260 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
261 schema:sdPublisher N71ccf0a7163547978a1f67a3515733bd
262 schema:url http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1
263 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
264 sgo:sdDataset chapters
265 rdf:type schema:Chapter
266 N000e835b5afc43589cfa217c46043854 schema:location New York, NY
267 schema:name Springer New York
268 rdf:type schema:Organisation
269 N0613f2edb0d144eeab22a77a2dee68c7 rdf:first Na3f02d170cb74a55946628d1422eaff1
270 rdf:rest Nc2688056e3724fd6903d3b5eef5533f1
271 N0b4ce95f6ae64b84ad888e9ea646e118 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
272 schema:name Pyrethrins
273 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
274 N12781addd54244efb44204cbb3cde992 rdf:first N2bfdabb5e6ce4a8fb70f83da4a54a8d1
275 rdf:rest Nc93627005dc34c8ab0855e7779272f13
276 N22665d088a314a85b44c78a947c6a7b7 rdf:first N73e57df8edd948ce9448b9a04ad1d35e
277 rdf:rest rdf:nil
278 N2bfdabb5e6ce4a8fb70f83da4a54a8d1 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a
279 schema:familyName Goldsmith
280 schema:givenName Rocky
281 rdf:type schema:Person
282 N3bcfe91c4952422bae33f5ae14a4be22 schema:name dimensions_id
283 schema:value pub.1045561912
284 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
285 N44da42d1e25a4f2896a45905c0bb1b3c schema:name General Dynamics Information Technology, 181 North Arroyo Grande Boulevard, Suite 105A, Henderson, NV 89074-1624, USA
286 rdf:type schema:Organization
287 N4761eeb511c14ba6943ed5da262f758b schema:name pubmed_id
288 schema:value 22610175
289 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
290 N55e6db84b1ac4531adbff95338081adb schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
291 schema:name Molecular Structure
292 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
293 N630a2858073c4160a0533c02d3eaf4fa rdf:first sg:person.0612315773.37
294 rdf:rest N7abf3a260ed349dd8abfc2cf5bc0e440
295 N65d523587de144559c653e958b783863 schema:isbn 978-1-4614-3280-7
296 978-1-4614-3281-4
297 schema:name Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
298 rdf:type schema:Book
299 N69dd7cc1d83f46bf8a3bcb1c8c59f9ee schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
300 schema:name Humans
301 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
302 N71c9f90a87684130a2148e46f913669c schema:name Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 944 East Harmon Avenue, Las Vegas, NV 89193-3478, USA
303 rdf:type schema:Organization
304 N71ccf0a7163547978a1f67a3515733bd schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
305 rdf:type schema:Organization
306 N73e57df8edd948ce9448b9a04ad1d35e schema:familyName Whitacre
307 schema:givenName David M.
308 rdf:type schema:Person
309 N76af641f4bd84baeafea9d1516bb9810 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
310 schema:name Risk Assessment
311 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
312 N7abf3a260ed349dd8abfc2cf5bc0e440 rdf:first sg:person.01370053355.77
313 rdf:rest Nba31d5ff212e4789a5baee08684c0742
314 N7b543348d74a448b9b9b8dfb3ac4b43c schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
315 schema:name Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship
316 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
317 N7f86e8cd7da043bc901649127f339285 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
318 schema:name Insecticides
319 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
320 N80d156fd910c42c99f61bae727eb2db7 schema:name doi
321 schema:value 10.1007/978-1-4614-3281-4_1
322 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
323 N8c13797be817446fad31af5f6a7c05da schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
324 schema:name Rats
325 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
326 Na3f02d170cb74a55946628d1422eaff1 schema:affiliation Nacf7e20decbd44d9bbb2998d2eda61d7
327 schema:familyName Gerlach
328 schema:givenName Robert W.
329 rdf:type schema:Person
330 Nacf7e20decbd44d9bbb2998d2eda61d7 schema:name General Dynamics Information Technology, 181 North Arroyo Grande Boulevard, Suite 105A, Henderson, NV 89074-1624, USA
331 rdf:type schema:Organization
332 Nba31d5ff212e4789a5baee08684c0742 rdf:first sg:person.01142364601.37
333 rdf:rest N0613f2edb0d144eeab22a77a2dee68c7
334 Nc2688056e3724fd6903d3b5eef5533f1 rdf:first sg:person.01160447627.07
335 rdf:rest Nf7762b14dd7a4c5bbc05d6cf9281b7f4
336 Nc7e73340dc054d869544c272c8906950 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
337 schema:name Male
338 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
339 Nc93627005dc34c8ab0855e7779272f13 rdf:first sg:person.010172377737.58
340 rdf:rest rdf:nil
341 Nd462343779f44e0ca4b7b668ff45433e schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
342 schema:name Animals
343 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
344 Nddb73761899f4271bd16a673cd637086 schema:inDefinedTermSet https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/
345 schema:name Models, Biological
346 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
347 Nf7762b14dd7a4c5bbc05d6cf9281b7f4 rdf:first sg:person.0761273444.29
348 rdf:rest N12781addd54244efb44204cbb3cde992
349 Nfa7d7be991f545f4934c7d582fb3c215 schema:name readcube_id
350 schema:value d9082e565d6c151bf6bdf804fe6ce7d004767ba8347bf2da166ce85469a8b57d
351 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
352 anzsrc-for:11 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
353 schema:name Medical and Health Sciences
354 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
355 anzsrc-for:1115 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
356 schema:name Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences
357 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
358 sg:person.010172377737.58 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a
359 schema:familyName Blancato
360 schema:givenName Jerry N.
361 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.010172377737.58
362 rdf:type schema:Person
363 sg:person.01142364601.37 schema:affiliation N44da42d1e25a4f2896a45905c0bb1b3c
364 schema:familyName Zhang
365 schema:givenName Xiaofei
366 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01142364601.37
367 rdf:type schema:Person
368 sg:person.01160447627.07 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a
369 schema:familyName Tornero-Velez
370 schema:givenName R.
371 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01160447627.07
372 rdf:type schema:Person
373 sg:person.01370053355.77 schema:affiliation N71c9f90a87684130a2148e46f913669c
374 schema:familyName Dary
375 schema:givenName Curtis C.
376 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.01370053355.77
377 rdf:type schema:Person
378 sg:person.0612315773.37 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.273335.3
379 schema:familyName Knaak
380 schema:givenName James B.
381 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0612315773.37
382 rdf:type schema:Person
383 sg:person.0761273444.29 schema:affiliation https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a
384 schema:familyName Chang
385 schema:givenName Daniel T.
386 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.0761273444.29
387 rdf:type schema:Person
388 sg:pub.10.1007/978-0-387-73163-6_3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002313040
389 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-73163-6_3
390 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
391 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001905938
392 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-2272-9_1
393 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
394 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4757-6429-1_2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040947362
395 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-6429-1_2
396 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
397 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4899-1262-6_18 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013013812
398 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-1262-6_18
399 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
400 sg:pub.10.1007/bf00755600 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052701283
401 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00755600
402 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
403 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01685914 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051482900
404 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01685914
405 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
406 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01721861 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032328148
407 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01721861
408 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
409 sg:pub.10.1007/bf01986006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011508496
410 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf01986006
411 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
412 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02220819 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027983181
413 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02220819
414 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
415 sg:pub.10.1007/bf02275888 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007022491
416 https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02275888
417 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
418 sg:pub.10.1007/s002040050373 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007878025
419 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002040050373
420 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
421 sg:pub.10.1007/s00420-003-0451-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1075306402
422 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0451-8
423 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
424 sg:pub.10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019767464
425 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10822-005-9003-5
426 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
427 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9020-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050857082
428 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9020-7
429 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
430 sg:pub.10.1007/s11095-006-9210-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1007851573
431 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-006-9210-3
432 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
433 sg:pub.10.1016/j.clpt.2004.07.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035119354
434 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clpt.2004.07.001
435 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
436 sg:pub.10.1023/a:1008723723679 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018555727
437 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1008723723679
438 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
439 sg:pub.10.1023/b:pham.0000012155.27488.2b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048503581
440 https://doi.org/10.1023/b:pham.0000012155.27488.2b
441 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
442 sg:pub.10.1038/213493a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017215411
443 https://doi.org/10.1038/213493a0
444 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
445 sg:pub.10.1038/230326a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051087095
446 https://doi.org/10.1038/230326a0
447 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
448 sg:pub.10.1038/248710a0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043357151
449 https://doi.org/10.1038/248710a0
450 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
451 sg:pub.10.1038/sj.jea.7500257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012550708
452 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500257
453 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
454 sg:pub.10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012613154
455 https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548
456 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
457 sg:pub.10.1365/s10337-004-0254-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020672003
458 https://doi.org/10.1365/s10337-004-0254-4
459 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
460 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:203 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051839513
461 https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-519-0:203
462 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
463 sg:pub.10.1385/0-89603-519-0:35 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006803286
464 https://doi.org/10.1385/0-89603-519-0:35
465 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
466 sg:pub.10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001234191
467 https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200342010-00003
468 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
469 https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1967.01610040091018 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047474702
470 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
471 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199801)52:1<3::aid-ps689>3.0.co;2-v schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010993674
472 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
473 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1096-9063(199908)55:8<775::aid-ps27>3.0.co;2-n schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045581730
474 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
475 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1520-6017(200001)89:1<16::aid-jps3>3.0.co;2-e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013207612
476 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
477 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1521-4168(19980301)21:3<189::aid-jhrc189>3.0.co;2-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023181451
478 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
479 https://doi.org/10.1002/0471435139.tox086 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1090062550
480 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
481 https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20122 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035239614
482 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
483 https://doi.org/10.1002/chir.20423 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048988650
484 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
485 https://doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.1156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025426113
486 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
487 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029671350
488 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
489 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.10128 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047467302
490 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
491 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20059 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006752532
492 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
493 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20322 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002238118
494 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
495 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20502 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021366561
496 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
497 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20804 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014535928
498 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
499 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.20856 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030881585
500 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
501 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.22078 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022087897
502 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
503 https://doi.org/10.1002/jps.2600751115 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026239142
504 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
505 https://doi.org/10.1002/med.10039 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1044028285
506 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
507 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780080602 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032985409
508 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
509 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110211 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032010129
510 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
511 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780110216 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008826345
512 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
513 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780120406 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022731126
514 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
515 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780170513 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006395835
516 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
517 https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.2780270403 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025301971
518 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
519 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1995.2312 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051873843
520 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
521 https://doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1997.6413 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050664556
522 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
523 https://doi.org/10.1006/cbir.1997.0219 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022211838
524 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
525 https://doi.org/10.1006/faat.1994.1059 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041364631
526 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
527 https://doi.org/10.1006/pest.1995.1021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026460730
528 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
529 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1997.8156 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051195451
530 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
531 https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1998.8485 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023484677
532 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
533 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9861(90)90572-g schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009287868
534 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
535 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(89)90460-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004223644
536 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
537 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(93)90146-n schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043214138
538 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
539 https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(94)90520-7 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008897832
540 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
541 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(94)00890-l schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041356371
542 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
543 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00665-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051681238
544 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
545 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(74)90137-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1035755035
546 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
547 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(82)90149-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029216865
548 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
549 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008x(89)90137-3 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005789780
550 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
551 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(71)90161-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039257143
552 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
553 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90068-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016548705
554 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
555 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(74)90087-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001976633
556 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
557 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(76)90060-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048152098
558 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
559 https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-3575(85)90129-4 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013469777
560 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
561 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-409x(96)00009-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004710281
562 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
563 https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-0590(86)90094-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043739341
564 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
565 https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(84)90036-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049658534
566 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
567 https://doi.org/10.1016/0278-6915(92)90150-j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047201590
568 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
569 https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(95)11999-d schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026755671
570 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
571 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-1119(91)90448-k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002796838
572 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
573 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03356-p schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039301295
574 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
575 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4274(95)03366-s schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030383144
576 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
577 https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-5173(80)90054-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030100655
578 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
579 https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-374367-1.00076-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052366808
580 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
581 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.08.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052011347
582 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
583 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2005.11.020 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018978119
584 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
585 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2007.03.040 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1015905492
586 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
587 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2009.10.052 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1016358957
588 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
589 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.03.015 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036837983
590 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
591 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2004.06.075 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1014645232
592 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
593 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.03.028 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003622474
594 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
595 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2004.09.030 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018756649
596 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
597 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2009.09.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037773561
598 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
599 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2007.10.005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032999946
600 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
601 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2008.06.009 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1020954941
602 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
603 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.10.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043127787
604 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
605 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2005.07.021 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008182950
606 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
607 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.03.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047755398
608 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
609 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.12.034 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045330827
610 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
611 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2004.09.001 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012710651
612 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
613 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.10.008 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002872780
614 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
615 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2007.03.016 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052432114
616 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
617 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2011.04.002 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018513308
618 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
619 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vascn.2010.11.003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001360403
620 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
621 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0003-2697(03)00002-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050460922
622 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
623 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(86)80136-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1008645681
624 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
625 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3495(95)80346-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025446799
626 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
627 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0008-6363(02)00714-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1054578346
628 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
629 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)83746-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1049786036
630 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
631 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(00)91472-9 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047602679
632 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
633 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)01414-5 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052815936
634 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
635 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(01)89339-0 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037759133
636 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
637 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-9673(96)00652-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006258918
638 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
639 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0041-008x(96)80003-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1034364617
640 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
641 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(02)00854-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1036407525
642 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
643 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0048-9697(01)00744-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046780759
644 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
645 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0163-7258(96)00184-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013155826
646 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
647 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-328x(02)00655-1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030123142
648 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
649 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(01)00179-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037614035
650 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
651 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-409x(96)00415-2 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000841240
652 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
653 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-483x(01)00569-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037614002
654 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
655 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(01)00440-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052549962
656 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
657 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0378-4347(97)00174-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021594732
658 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
659 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-2333(02)00003-6 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033449141
660 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
661 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0959-440x(99)00037-8 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012816598
662 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
663 https://doi.org/10.1016/s1570-0232(03)00566-x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025439275
664 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
665 https://doi.org/10.1021/ci049718e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055401848
666 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
667 https://doi.org/10.1021/ci600248e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055404069
668 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
669 https://doi.org/10.1021/es052025+ schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055498686
670 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
671 https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00226a005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055715782
672 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
673 https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01300a079 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055790255
674 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
675 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00092a043 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896329
676 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
677 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00103a033 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896790
678 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
679 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00106a004 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055896970
680 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
681 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00112a003 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055897347
682 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
683 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00117a030 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055897700
684 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
685 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00125a050 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055898260
686 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
687 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60180a057 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055921390
688 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
689 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60197a022 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922302
690 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
691 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60204a007 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922685
692 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
693 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60209a005 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055922979
694 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
695 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60213a006 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923232
696 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
697 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60218a060 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923620
698 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
699 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60224a070 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055923984
700 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
701 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm010960b schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055946900
702 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
703 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm049011j schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055948836
704 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
705 https://doi.org/10.1021/jm970530e schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1055958449
706 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
707 https://doi.org/10.1021/js9803205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009224736
708 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
709 https://doi.org/10.1021/mp050018m schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1056212117
710 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
711 https://doi.org/10.1039/an9911601221 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013429758
712 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
713 https://doi.org/10.1039/b202996k schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010973196
714 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
715 https://doi.org/10.1039/cs9780700473 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043230655
716 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
717 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01881.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1009869968
718 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
719 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0408847102 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019001612
720 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
721 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.12.6456 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046647961
722 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
723 https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.m403673200 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1037684068
724 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
725 https://doi.org/10.1080/00039896.1971.10665987 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001405491
726 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
727 https://doi.org/10.1080/00498250600683262 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012434918
728 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
729 https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597239859 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023495704
730 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
731 https://doi.org/10.1080/004982597240127 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017780013
732 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
733 https://doi.org/10.1080/00984100290071171 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033368965
734 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
735 https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440490432250 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012890358
736 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
737 https://doi.org/10.1080/10717540601036849 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025132496
738 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
739 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287390802271608 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006505979
740 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
741 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2011.534423 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1052731882
742 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
743 https://doi.org/10.1080/15287398809531107 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1019971949
744 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
745 https://doi.org/10.1081/jlc-120030174 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1058433191
746 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
747 https://doi.org/10.1093/carcin/14.12.2531 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059450538
748 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
749 https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/46.9.783 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1047178401
750 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
751 https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/7.6.433 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1059931323
752 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
753 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/66.1.34 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026451680
754 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
755 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfh027 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1006191972
756 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
757 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfl056 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003466349
758 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
759 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfm232 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1004654860
760 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
761 https://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq051 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1030569285
762 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
763 https://doi.org/10.1103/physreve.80.021917 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1060739364
764 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
765 https://doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12470548 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012613154
766 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
767 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.03070.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1048247983
768 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
769 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1998.tb03814.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1025031683
770 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
771 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2004.03965.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1040700572
772 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
773 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1984.tb04363.x schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1031395943
774 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
775 https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1988.sp016916 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1005981997
776 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
777 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.105.007658 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021600209
778 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
779 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.010058 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033484918
780 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
781 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.106.012427 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023324876
782 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
783 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.015388 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002164778
784 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
785 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.108.022343 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1029439074
786 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
787 https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.30.12.1497 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1002252639
788 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
789 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.058792 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001416061
790 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
791 https://doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.061770 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1023452087
792 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
793 https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.006205 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1038818237
794 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
795 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.179.4079.1235 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1062506762
796 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
797 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.23.010178.002303 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1021468849
798 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
799 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.38.1.257 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027593083
800 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
801 https://doi.org/10.1177/074823379701300401 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1043959433
802 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
803 https://doi.org/10.1248/bpb1978.14.341 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017242878
804 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
805 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.37.2681 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000873835
806 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
807 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.38.881 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1039375798
808 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
809 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.45.1509 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1033916937
810 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
811 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1002873 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1024898931
812 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
813 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7254 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003309322
814 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
815 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.761415 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064742328
816 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
817 https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7721285 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1064742555
818 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
819 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.1.151 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045520162
820 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
821 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.12.385 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1027691973
822 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
823 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.4.143 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013360063
824 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
825 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.169 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1001863902
826 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
827 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.317 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026440552
828 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
829 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.6.425 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1032221698
830 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
831 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.237 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051479918
832 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
833 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.9.259 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1041611232
834 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
835 https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.r10-02 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1046656048
836 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
837 https://doi.org/10.1615/critrevtherdrugcarriersyst.v14.i3.20 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1068133183
838 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
839 https://doi.org/10.1897/04-457r.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1051365197
840 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
841 https://doi.org/10.1897/05-334r.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017862802
842 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
843 https://doi.org/10.1897/07-134.1 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1017967267
844 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
845 https://doi.org/10.2116/analsci.20.1745 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013892598
846 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
847 https://doi.org/10.2174/138920007779315053 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069175604
848 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
849 https://doi.org/10.2174/138945008785132420 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1069180680
850 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
851 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498250903568504 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1013421813
852 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
853 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258309052238 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1010893868
854 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
855 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258709043943 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1012704274
856 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
857 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498258809041697 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1026200969
858 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
859 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259209049904 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1028830421
860 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
861 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409038676 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1022835238
862 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
863 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043250 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1045644883
864 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
865 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259409043283 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1050895309
866 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
867 https://doi.org/10.3109/00498259609046700 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1003294704
868 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
869 https://doi.org/10.3109/10408449109019570 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1018673048
870 rdf:type schema:CreativeWork
871 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.273335.3 schema:alternateName University at Buffalo, State University of New York
872 schema:name Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, SUNY at Buffalo, 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
873 rdf:type schema:Organization
874 https://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.418698.a schema:alternateName Environmental Protection Agency
875 schema:name National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
876 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...