The Warm, Cold and Very Cold Dusty Universe View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter      Open Access: True


Chapter Info

DATE

2004

AUTHORS

Aigen Li

ABSTRACT

We are living in a dusty universe: dust is ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical environments, ranging from circumstellar envelopes around cool red giants to supernova ejecta, from diffuse and dense interstellar clouds and star-forming regions to debris disks around main-sequence stars, from comets to interplanetary space to distant galaxies and quasars.These grains, spanning a wide range of sizes from a few angstroms to a few micrometers, play a vital role in the evolution of galaxies as an absorber, scatterer, and emitter of electromagnetic radiation, as a driver for the mass loss of evolved stars, as an essential participant in the star and planet formation process, as an efficient catalyst for the formation of H2 and other simple molecules as well as complex organic molecules which may lead to the origins of life, as a photoelectric heating agent for the interstellar gas, and as an agent shaping the spectral appearance of dusty systems such as protostars, young stellar objects, evolved stars and galaxies.In this review I focus on the dust grains in the space between stars (interstellar dust), with particular emphasis on the extinction (absorption plus scattering) and emission properties of cold submicron-sized “classical” grains which, in thermal equilibrium with the ambient interstellar radiation field, obtain a steady-state temperature of ~ 15–25 K, warm nano-sized (or smaller) “ultrasmall” grains which are, upon absorption of an energetic photon, transiently heated to temperatures as high as a few hundred to over 1000 K, and the possible existence of a population of very cold (<10 K) dust. Whether dust grains can really get down to “temperature” less than the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation temperature will also be discussed. The robustness of the silicate-graphite-PAHs interstellar dust model is demonstrated by showing that the infrared emission predicted from this model closely matches that observed for the Milky Way, the Small Magellanic Cloud, and the ringed Sb galaxy NGC 7331. More... »

PAGES

535-560

Book

TITLE

Penetrating Bars through Masks of Cosmic Dust

ISBN

978-94-015-7085-5
978-1-4020-2862-5

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000410555


Indexing Status Check whether this publication has been indexed by Scopus and Web Of Science using the SN Indexing Status Tool
Incoming Citations Browse incoming citations for this publication using opencitations.net

JSON-LD is the canonical representation for SciGraph data.

TIP: You can open this SciGraph record using an external JSON-LD service: JSON-LD Playground Google SDTT

[
  {
    "@context": "https://springernature.github.io/scigraph/jsonld/sgcontext.json", 
    "about": [
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/02", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Physical Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }, 
      {
        "id": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/0201", 
        "inDefinedTermSet": "http://purl.org/au-research/vocabulary/anzsrc-for/2008/", 
        "name": "Astronomical and Space Sciences", 
        "type": "DefinedTerm"
      }
    ], 
    "author": [
      {
        "affiliation": {
          "alternateName": "Theoretical Astrophysics Program, University of Arizona, 85721, Tucson, AZ, USA", 
          "id": "http://www.grid.ac/institutes/grid.134563.6", 
          "name": [
            "Theoretical Astrophysics Program, University of Arizona, 85721, Tucson, AZ, USA"
          ], 
          "type": "Organization"
        }, 
        "familyName": "Li", 
        "givenName": "Aigen", 
        "id": "sg:person.014411002373.04", 
        "sameAs": [
          "https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014411002373.04"
        ], 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "datePublished": "2004", 
    "datePublishedReg": "2004-01-01", 
    "description": "We are living in a dusty universe: dust is ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical environments, ranging from circumstellar envelopes around cool red giants to supernova ejecta, from diffuse and dense interstellar clouds and star-forming regions to debris disks around main-sequence stars, from comets to interplanetary space to distant galaxies and quasars.These grains, spanning a wide range of sizes from a few angstroms to a few micrometers, play a vital role in the evolution of galaxies as an absorber, scatterer, and emitter of electromagnetic radiation, as a driver for the mass loss of evolved stars, as an essential participant in the star and planet formation process, as an efficient catalyst for the formation of H2 and other simple molecules as well as complex organic molecules which may lead to the origins of life, as a photoelectric heating agent for the interstellar gas, and as an agent shaping the spectral appearance of dusty systems such as protostars, young stellar objects, evolved stars and galaxies.In this review I focus on the dust grains in the space between stars (interstellar dust), with particular emphasis on the extinction (absorption plus scattering) and emission properties of cold submicron-sized \u201cclassical\u201d grains which, in thermal equilibrium with the ambient interstellar radiation field, obtain a steady-state temperature of ~ 15\u201325 K, warm nano-sized (or smaller) \u201cultrasmall\u201d grains which are, upon absorption of an energetic photon, transiently heated to temperatures as high as a few hundred to over 1000 K, and the possible existence of a population of very cold (<10 K) dust. Whether dust grains can really get down to \u201ctemperature\u201d less than the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation temperature will also be discussed. The robustness of the silicate-graphite-PAHs interstellar dust model is demonstrated by showing that the infrared emission predicted from this model closely matches that observed for the Milky Way, the Small Magellanic Cloud, and the ringed Sb galaxy NGC 7331.", 
    "editor": [
      {
        "familyName": "Block", 
        "givenName": "David L.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Puerari", 
        "givenName": "Iv\u00e2nio", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Freeman", 
        "givenName": "Kenneth C.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Groess", 
        "givenName": "Robert", 
        "type": "Person"
      }, 
      {
        "familyName": "Block", 
        "givenName": "Elizabeth K.", 
        "type": "Person"
      }
    ], 
    "genre": "chapter", 
    "id": "sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47", 
    "isAccessibleForFree": true, 
    "isPartOf": {
      "isbn": [
        "978-94-015-7085-5", 
        "978-1-4020-2862-5"
      ], 
      "name": "Penetrating Bars through Masks of Cosmic Dust", 
      "type": "Book"
    }, 
    "keywords": [
      "evolved stars", 
      "dusty universe", 
      "dust grains", 
      "cosmic microwave background radiation temperature", 
      "evolution of galaxies", 
      "planet formation process", 
      "interstellar radiation field", 
      "star-forming regions", 
      "young stellar objects", 
      "background radiation temperature", 
      "cool red giants", 
      "main-sequence stars", 
      "Small Magellanic Cloud", 
      "dense interstellar clouds", 
      "interstellar dust model", 
      "distant galaxies", 
      "Milky Way", 
      "NGC 7331", 
      "energetic photons", 
      "cold dust", 
      "astrophysical environments", 
      "debris disks", 
      "interplanetary space", 
      "interstellar gas", 
      "stellar objects", 
      "Magellanic Cloud", 
      "red giants", 
      "dusty systems", 
      "supernova ejecta", 
      "radiation field", 
      "circumstellar envelopes", 
      "interstellar clouds", 
      "infrared emission", 
      "radiation temperature", 
      "stars", 
      "electromagnetic radiation", 
      "spectral appearance", 
      "galaxies", 
      "thermal equilibrium", 
      "dust model", 
      "emission properties", 
      "complex organic molecules", 
      "formation of H2", 
      "universe", 
      "simple molecules", 
      "possible existence", 
      "steady-state temperature", 
      "origin of life", 
      "organic molecules", 
      "formation process", 
      "review I", 
      "heating agent", 
      "quasars", 
      "photons", 
      "protostars", 
      "mass loss", 
      "dust", 
      "cloud", 
      "ejecta", 
      "emitters", 
      "temperature", 
      "space", 
      "radiation", 
      "absorber", 
      "giants", 
      "absorption", 
      "angstroms", 
      "scatterers", 
      "emission", 
      "micrometers", 
      "comets", 
      "ultrasmall", 
      "disk", 
      "particular emphasis", 
      "gas", 
      "molecules", 
      "model", 
      "field", 
      "wide range", 
      "robustness", 
      "grains", 
      "existence", 
      "H2", 
      "properties", 
      "diffuse", 
      "wide variety", 
      "equilibrium", 
      "envelope", 
      "extinction", 
      "evolution", 
      "objects", 
      "range", 
      "system", 
      "region", 
      "formation", 
      "origin", 
      "size", 
      "appearance", 
      "way", 
      "process", 
      "emphasis", 
      "vital role", 
      "variety", 
      "loss", 
      "environment", 
      "efficient catalyst", 
      "warm", 
      "catalyst", 
      "role", 
      "drivers", 
      "population", 
      "essential participants", 
      "agents", 
      "life", 
      "participants"
    ], 
    "name": "The Warm, Cold and Very Cold Dusty Universe", 
    "pagination": "535-560", 
    "productId": [
      {
        "name": "dimensions_id", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "pub.1000410555"
        ]
      }, 
      {
        "name": "doi", 
        "type": "PropertyValue", 
        "value": [
          "10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47"
        ]
      }
    ], 
    "publisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature", 
      "type": "Organisation"
    }, 
    "sameAs": [
      "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47", 
      "https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000410555"
    ], 
    "sdDataset": "chapters", 
    "sdDatePublished": "2022-12-01T06:55", 
    "sdLicense": "https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/", 
    "sdPublisher": {
      "name": "Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project", 
      "type": "Organization"
    }, 
    "sdSource": "s3://com-springernature-scigraph/baseset/20221201/entities/gbq_results/chapter/chapter_6.jsonl", 
    "type": "Chapter", 
    "url": "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47"
  }
]
 

Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

194 TRIPLES      22 PREDICATES      140 URIs      133 LITERALS      7 BLANK NODES

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:pub.10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47 schema:about anzsrc-for:02
2 anzsrc-for:0201
3 schema:author N8d59edabbced4416bfc1382b60536dda
4 schema:datePublished 2004
5 schema:datePublishedReg 2004-01-01
6 schema:description We are living in a dusty universe: dust is ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of astrophysical environments, ranging from circumstellar envelopes around cool red giants to supernova ejecta, from diffuse and dense interstellar clouds and star-forming regions to debris disks around main-sequence stars, from comets to interplanetary space to distant galaxies and quasars.These grains, spanning a wide range of sizes from a few angstroms to a few micrometers, play a vital role in the evolution of galaxies as an absorber, scatterer, and emitter of electromagnetic radiation, as a driver for the mass loss of evolved stars, as an essential participant in the star and planet formation process, as an efficient catalyst for the formation of H2 and other simple molecules as well as complex organic molecules which may lead to the origins of life, as a photoelectric heating agent for the interstellar gas, and as an agent shaping the spectral appearance of dusty systems such as protostars, young stellar objects, evolved stars and galaxies.In this review I focus on the dust grains in the space between stars (interstellar dust), with particular emphasis on the extinction (absorption plus scattering) and emission properties of cold submicron-sized “classical” grains which, in thermal equilibrium with the ambient interstellar radiation field, obtain a steady-state temperature of ~ 15–25 K, warm nano-sized (or smaller) “ultrasmall” grains which are, upon absorption of an energetic photon, transiently heated to temperatures as high as a few hundred to over 1000 K, and the possible existence of a population of very cold (<10 K) dust. Whether dust grains can really get down to “temperature” less than the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation temperature will also be discussed. The robustness of the silicate-graphite-PAHs interstellar dust model is demonstrated by showing that the infrared emission predicted from this model closely matches that observed for the Milky Way, the Small Magellanic Cloud, and the ringed Sb galaxy NGC 7331.
7 schema:editor N86cc5fb75718416793737281ab31efc4
8 schema:genre chapter
9 schema:isAccessibleForFree true
10 schema:isPartOf Nd8b4afc17f89431bb70f310066c5ddb7
11 schema:keywords H2
12 Magellanic Cloud
13 Milky Way
14 NGC 7331
15 Small Magellanic Cloud
16 absorber
17 absorption
18 agents
19 angstroms
20 appearance
21 astrophysical environments
22 background radiation temperature
23 catalyst
24 circumstellar envelopes
25 cloud
26 cold dust
27 comets
28 complex organic molecules
29 cool red giants
30 cosmic microwave background radiation temperature
31 debris disks
32 dense interstellar clouds
33 diffuse
34 disk
35 distant galaxies
36 drivers
37 dust
38 dust grains
39 dust model
40 dusty systems
41 dusty universe
42 efficient catalyst
43 ejecta
44 electromagnetic radiation
45 emission
46 emission properties
47 emitters
48 emphasis
49 energetic photons
50 envelope
51 environment
52 equilibrium
53 essential participants
54 evolution
55 evolution of galaxies
56 evolved stars
57 existence
58 extinction
59 field
60 formation
61 formation of H2
62 formation process
63 galaxies
64 gas
65 giants
66 grains
67 heating agent
68 infrared emission
69 interplanetary space
70 interstellar clouds
71 interstellar dust model
72 interstellar gas
73 interstellar radiation field
74 life
75 loss
76 main-sequence stars
77 mass loss
78 micrometers
79 model
80 molecules
81 objects
82 organic molecules
83 origin
84 origin of life
85 participants
86 particular emphasis
87 photons
88 planet formation process
89 population
90 possible existence
91 process
92 properties
93 protostars
94 quasars
95 radiation
96 radiation field
97 radiation temperature
98 range
99 red giants
100 region
101 review I
102 robustness
103 role
104 scatterers
105 simple molecules
106 size
107 space
108 spectral appearance
109 star-forming regions
110 stars
111 steady-state temperature
112 stellar objects
113 supernova ejecta
114 system
115 temperature
116 thermal equilibrium
117 ultrasmall
118 universe
119 variety
120 vital role
121 warm
122 way
123 wide range
124 wide variety
125 young stellar objects
126 schema:name The Warm, Cold and Very Cold Dusty Universe
127 schema:pagination 535-560
128 schema:productId N035cba66c61946a29ef6161d036bf9ef
129 N8e1c359456f94186ae091d387f7013a1
130 schema:publisher Nc3948d1c9dde492682c505070968c8a9
131 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1000410555
132 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47
133 schema:sdDatePublished 2022-12-01T06:55
134 schema:sdLicense https://scigraph.springernature.com/explorer/license/
135 schema:sdPublisher N294648684b1b472ca6fb0d4784f4233d
136 schema:url https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47
137 sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
138 sgo:sdDataset chapters
139 rdf:type schema:Chapter
140 N035cba66c61946a29ef6161d036bf9ef schema:name dimensions_id
141 schema:value pub.1000410555
142 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
143 N294648684b1b472ca6fb0d4784f4233d schema:name Springer Nature - SN SciGraph project
144 rdf:type schema:Organization
145 N38a119a409274dd5ba8212babbbd727c schema:familyName Freeman
146 schema:givenName Kenneth C.
147 rdf:type schema:Person
148 N3f5eb1d6bc0c4842ba3dae7c39ca29c9 rdf:first N41c80a8f1fee473a8ff1d746eebfe0fb
149 rdf:rest Nb3abc0d020f24652ab0dad28c0117d8a
150 N41c80a8f1fee473a8ff1d746eebfe0fb schema:familyName Puerari
151 schema:givenName Ivânio
152 rdf:type schema:Person
153 N7c1de90bbc1045c3b733051872d368f4 schema:familyName Block
154 schema:givenName Elizabeth K.
155 rdf:type schema:Person
156 N820db12e068347218c4ae5ff665bcd02 rdf:first N8fe7ced9407942aab047fc1e81c95684
157 rdf:rest Nf402dcea684441a49b231a73869dd830
158 N86cc5fb75718416793737281ab31efc4 rdf:first Na84ec04b0c6349599a6d01c454a11d90
159 rdf:rest N3f5eb1d6bc0c4842ba3dae7c39ca29c9
160 N8d59edabbced4416bfc1382b60536dda rdf:first sg:person.014411002373.04
161 rdf:rest rdf:nil
162 N8e1c359456f94186ae091d387f7013a1 schema:name doi
163 schema:value 10.1007/978-1-4020-2862-5_47
164 rdf:type schema:PropertyValue
165 N8fe7ced9407942aab047fc1e81c95684 schema:familyName Groess
166 schema:givenName Robert
167 rdf:type schema:Person
168 Na84ec04b0c6349599a6d01c454a11d90 schema:familyName Block
169 schema:givenName David L.
170 rdf:type schema:Person
171 Nb3abc0d020f24652ab0dad28c0117d8a rdf:first N38a119a409274dd5ba8212babbbd727c
172 rdf:rest N820db12e068347218c4ae5ff665bcd02
173 Nc3948d1c9dde492682c505070968c8a9 schema:name Springer Nature
174 rdf:type schema:Organisation
175 Nd8b4afc17f89431bb70f310066c5ddb7 schema:isbn 978-1-4020-2862-5
176 978-94-015-7085-5
177 schema:name Penetrating Bars through Masks of Cosmic Dust
178 rdf:type schema:Book
179 Nf402dcea684441a49b231a73869dd830 rdf:first N7c1de90bbc1045c3b733051872d368f4
180 rdf:rest rdf:nil
181 anzsrc-for:02 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
182 schema:name Physical Sciences
183 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
184 anzsrc-for:0201 schema:inDefinedTermSet anzsrc-for:
185 schema:name Astronomical and Space Sciences
186 rdf:type schema:DefinedTerm
187 sg:person.014411002373.04 schema:affiliation grid-institutes:grid.134563.6
188 schema:familyName Li
189 schema:givenName Aigen
190 schema:sameAs https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication?and_facet_researcher=ur.014411002373.04
191 rdf:type schema:Person
192 grid-institutes:grid.134563.6 schema:alternateName Theoretical Astrophysics Program, University of Arizona, 85721, Tucson, AZ, USA
193 schema:name Theoretical Astrophysics Program, University of Arizona, 85721, Tucson, AZ, USA
194 rdf:type schema:Organization
 




Preview window. Press ESC to close (or click here)


...