Applications of Neutron Scattering in the Chemical Industry: Proton Dynamics of Highly Dispersed Materials, Characterization of Fuel Cell Catalysts, and ... View Full Text


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Chapter Info

DATE

2007

AUTHORS

Peter W. Albers , Stewart F. Parker

ABSTRACT

The attractiveness of neutron scattering techniques for the detailed characterization of materials of high degrees of dispersity and structural complexity as encountered in the chemical industry is discussed. Neutron scattering picks up where other analytical methods leave off because of the physico-chemical properties of finely divided products and materials whose absorption behavior toward electromagnetic radiation and electrical conductivity causes serious problems. This is demonstrated by presenting typical applications from large-scale production technology and industrial catalysis. These include the determination of the proton-related surface chemistry of advanced materials that are used as reinforcing fillers in the manufacture of tires, where interrelations between surface chemistry, rheological properties, improved safety, and significant reduction of fuel consumption are the focus of recent developments. Neutron scattering allows surface science studies of the dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on nanodispersed, supported precious metal particles of fuel cell catalysts under in situ loading at realistic gas pressures of about 1 bar. Insight into the occupation of catalytically relevant surface sites provides valuable information about the catalyst in the working state and supplies essential scientific input for tailoring better catalysts by technologists. The impact of deactivation phenomena on industrial catalysts by coke deposition, chemical transformation of carbonaceous deposits, and other processes in catalytic hydrogenation processes that result in significant shortening of the time of useful operation in large-scale plants can often be traced back in detail to surface or bulk properties of catalysts or materials of catalytic relevance. A better understanding of avoidable or unavoidable aspects of catalyst deactivation phenomena under certain in-process conditions and the development of effective means for reducing deactivation leads to more energy-efficient and, therefore, environmentally friendly processes and helps to save valuable resources. Even small or gradual improvements in all these fields are of considerable economic impact. More... »

PAGES

391-416

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/978-0-387-09416-8_13

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09416-8_13

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011207306


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