Tissue Culture of Cashewnut View Full Text


Ontology type: schema:Chapter     


Chapter Info

DATE

2005-01-01

AUTHORS

Sumita Jha , Sudripta Das

ABSTRACT

Cashewnut, Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae), is one of the most recalcitrant species in tissue culture. Even after eighteen years of research since the first report on cashew tissue culture, limited success has been achieved in obtaining a reproducible protocol for induction, development and conversion of somatic embryos. Some success has been achieved in micropropagation using cotyledonary nodal explants but there are no reports on propagation using explants from mature trees. Embryo culture has been successful in raising whole plants from immature embryos to overcome the problem of embryo abortion in cashew. Micrografting has also been employed by a modified side-grafting procedure by which shoot tips from glass-house raised seedlings and field plants were grafted on in vitro raised seedling rootstock. Induction of somatic embryos on different explants excised from immature zygotic embryos like excised cotyledons and excised hypocotyl with radicle, as well as on intact zygotic embryos as small as 1–2 mm has been obtained. The establishment of viable aseptic culture of immature zygotic embryos in cashewnut was restricted due to the exudation of phenolics in the media and the oxidation and browning of explants. Somatic embryos were induced directly on intact zygotic embryo explants of A1-A3 size in two out of the five genotypes that were studied, after 4 weeks of culture initially in M1 media and 4 weeks in the M2 media. Induction of somatic embryos was related to the size of intact zygotic embryo explant, and to the presence or absence of callusing in explants. Embryos were also induced on excised cotyledons and excised hypocotyls with radicle, but the best results of number of somatic embryos induced per explant (23 embryos) and frequencies of maturation (59.5%) and germination (23.2%) were obtained in intact zygotic embryos of A2 size, belonging to the variety KV-26. A preconditioning or post-maturation period was necessary for germination of somatic embryos and germination was achieved after 4–5 weeks of preconditioning on MS media containing BA (1.0 mg/l) (M3), however, only in 8.05–23.2% of the cases somatic embryos were induced on different explants. Plants regenerated from somatic embryos were transferred to MS basal medium for proliferation of shoots, which was found to be very slow. Attempts to transfer somatic embryo derived plants to potted soil were not successful. The results obtained have important implications for the further use of in vitro culture techniques for this recalcitrant species for the recovery of somaclones and transgenics. More... »

PAGES

244-260

Book

TITLE

Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Markers

ISBN

978-1-4020-1911-1
978-1-4020-3213-4

Identifiers

URI

http://scigraph.springernature.com/pub.10.1007/1-4020-3213-7_17

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3213-7_17

DIMENSIONS

https://app.dimensions.ai/details/publication/pub.1011118277


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