Proteins


Ontology type: npg:Subject  | skos:Concept     


Concept Info

NAME

Proteins

DESCRIPTION

Proteins are biopolymers of amino acids (polypeptides), joined by peptide bonds, that are generated by ribosomes. The amino acid sequence, encoded by its gene, determines a protein’s structure and function. Newly synthesized proteins can be modified by post-translational modification, altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein–protein interaction networks for function.

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Download the RDF metadata as:  json-ld nt turtle xml License info

HOW TO GET THIS DATA PROGRAMMATICALLY:

JSON-LD is a popular format for linked data which is fully compatible with JSON.

curl -H 'Accept: application/ld+json' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteins'

N-Triples is a line-based linked data format ideal for batch operations.

curl -H 'Accept: application/n-triples' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteins'

Turtle is a human-readable linked data format.

curl -H 'Accept: text/turtle' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteins'

RDF/XML is a standard XML format for linked data.

curl -H 'Accept: application/rdf+xml' 'https://scigraph.springernature.com/ontologies/subjects/proteins'


 

This table displays all metadata directly associated to this object as RDF triples.

638 TRIPLES      10 PREDICATES      57 URIs      7 LITERALS

Subject Predicate Object
1 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins sgo:license sg:explorer/license/
2 sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
3 rdf:type npg:Subject
4 skos:Concept
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6 skos:altLabel Gene Proteins
7 Protein
8 Protein Gene Products
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10 sg:ontologies/subjects/chemical-biology
11 skos:definition Proteins are biopolymers of amino acids (polypeptides), joined by peptide bonds, that are generated by ribosomes. The amino acid sequence, encoded by its gene, determines a protein’s structure and function. Newly synthesized proteins can be modified by post-translational modification, altering its protein folding, stability and activity. Proteins often associate into protein–protein interaction networks for function.
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57 sg:ontologies/subjects/ dcterms:description The Nature Subjects Taxonomy is a polyhierarchical categorization of scholarly subject areas which are used for the indexing of content by Springer Nature.
58 dcterms:title Nature Subjects Taxonomy
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76 skos:definition Acetyltransferases are enzymes that transfer acetyl (CH3C=O) groups to proteins, generally on lysine residues. This post-translational modification has regulatory roles, notably in chromatin structure and function.
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86 skos:definition Biochemistry is the study of the structure and function of biological molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids. Biochemistry is also used to describe techniques suited to understanding the interactions and functions of biological molecules, including traditional techniques such as Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation, and chromatography methods.
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128 skos:definition Blood proteins are proteins present in the blood but not associated physically with blood cells, such as serum albumin, globulins and coagulation factors. Blood proteins can function in various processes such as in transporting metabolites and metals through the bloodstream and in immune system functions.
129 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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131 sg:ontologies/subjects/carrier-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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133 skos:Concept
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138 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
139 skos:definition Carrier proteins are proteins in cellular membranes that mobilize different molecules by diffusion or active (ATP-driven) transport, though they are distinguishable from ion channels by changing shape in order to effect transport. Transport by carrier proteins involves moving small molecules from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration – against a biochemical gradient.
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151 skos:definition Cell-cycle proteins are the proteins involved in regulation and maintenance of the cell cycle of eukaryotic cells. These include kinases and cyclins that regulate movement between the three phases of the cell cycle that leads to replication and division of a cell – these phases are interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis.
152 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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154 sg:ontologies/subjects/cerebrospinal-fluid-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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156 skos:Concept
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160 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
161 skos:definition Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins are proteins produced by ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the brain and circulate through the CSF around and inside the brain and spinal cord. CSF proteins strengthen mechanically and provide immune protection for the brain. Diagnostic examination of CSF for its proteins can be useful in the clinic.
162 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
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164 sg:ontologies/subjects/chaperones sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
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168 skos:altLabel Molecular Chaperone
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170 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/protein-folding
171 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
172 skos:definition Chaperones are proteins that assist in protein folding and multi-protein complex assembly co-translationally or post-translationally. Generally, a single chaperone has multiple client proteins. An example of chaperones are heat shock proteins, which are upregulated in response to heat – a risk factor for protein misfolding and aggregation.
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181 skos:definition Chemical biology is the study of the chemicals and chemical reactions involved in biological processes, incorporating the disciplines of bioorganic chemistry, biochemistry, cell biology and pharmacology. Chemicals – including natural small molecules, such as lipids, carbohydrates and metals, or non-natural probe or drug molecules – are used to gain insight into biological problems at a mechanistic level.
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239 sg:ontologies/subjects/chromatin-structure
240 sg:ontologies/subjects/histone-post-translational-modifications
241 sg:ontologies/subjects/histone-variants
242 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleosomes
243 skos:prefLabel Chromatin
244 sg:ontologies/subjects/circadian-rhythm-signalling-peptides-and-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
245 rdf:type npg:Subject
246 skos:Concept
247 rdfs:label Circadian rhythm signalling peptides and proteins
248 skos:altLabel Circadian Clock Proteins and Peptides
249 Circadian Rhythm Signaling Peptides
250 Circadian Rhythm Signaling Proteins
251 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
252 skos:definition Circadian rhythm signalling peptides and proteins are a broad range of proteins and peptides that regulate the circadian rhythm of a cell or organism, the roughly 24-hour period entrained by light, temperature and other environmental components. These peptides and proteins generally undergo circadian oscillations in transcription levels, phosphorylation levels, and in their susceptibility to degradation.
253 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
254 skos:prefLabel Circadian rhythm signalling peptides and proteins
255 sg:ontologies/subjects/colipases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
256 rdf:type npg:Subject
257 skos:Concept
258 rdfs:label Colipases
259 skos:altLabel Colipase A
260 Colipase B
261 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
262 skos:definition Colipases are small proteins derived from the pancreas that act as binding partners and cofactors for pancreatic lipases, enzymes that digest dietary triglylcerides to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Colipases aid in absorption of dietary fats and also protect dietary long-chain triglycerides from the inhibitory effect of bile salts in the gut.
263 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
264 skos:prefLabel Colipases
265 sg:ontologies/subjects/complement sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
266 rdf:type npg:Subject
267 skos:Concept
268 rdfs:label Complement
269 skos:altLabel Alexine
270 Complement Protein
271 Complement Proteins
272 Complement System Proteins
273 Hemolytic Complement
274 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
275 skos:definition Complement is part of the innate immune system – comprising approximately 25 proteins and peptides – which is responsible for quickly and non-specifically sensing and responding to tissue alterations and pathogen antigens. Complement enhances recognition and destruction of antigens by attracting phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils and by triggering cytokine expression.
276 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
277 skos:prefLabel Complement
278 sg:ontologies/subjects/contractile-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
279 rdf:type npg:Subject
280 skos:Concept
281 rdfs:label Contractile proteins
282 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
283 skos:definition Contractile proteins are proteins that mediate sliding of contractile fibres (contraction) of a cell’s cytoskeleton, and of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Heart and muscle contractile fibres consist of bundles of actin polymers that slide alongside each other by the activity of the motor protein myosin and associated contractile proteins such as troponin and titin.
284 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
285 skos:prefLabel Contractile proteins
286 sg:ontologies/subjects/cytoskeletal-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
287 rdf:type npg:Subject
288 skos:Concept
289 rdfs:label Cytoskeletal proteins
290 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
291 skos:definition Cytoskeletal proteins are proteins that make up the cytoskeleton, flagella or cilia of cells. Generally, cytoskeletal proteins are polymers, and include tubulin (the protein component of microtubules), actin (the component of microfilaments) and lamin (the component of intermediate filaments).
292 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
293 skos:prefLabel Cytoskeletal proteins
294 sg:ontologies/subjects/dna-binding-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
295 rdf:type npg:Subject
296 skos:Concept
297 rdfs:label DNA-binding proteins
298 skos:altLabel DNA Binding Protein
299 DNA Binding Proteins
300 DNA Helix Destabilizing Proteins
301 DNA Single Stranded Binding Protein
302 DNA Single-Stranded Binding Protein
303 DNA-binding protein
304 Deoxyribonucleic acid binding protein
305 Deoxyribonucleic acid binding proteins
306 SS DNA BP
307 Single Stranded DNA Binding Protein
308 Single Stranded DNA Binding Proteins
309 Single-Stranded DNA Binding Proteins
310 Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein
311 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
312 skos:definition DNA-binding proteins are proteins that bind to single- or double-stranded DNA, generally in the major groove if the binding is sequence-specific – as with transcription factors that regulate expression of genes, and nucleases that cleave DNA between nucleotides. DNA-binding proteins can also bind DNA non-specifically, such as polymerases and histones.
313 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
314 skos:prefLabel DNA-binding proteins
315 sg:ontologies/subjects/g-protein-coupled-receptors sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
316 rdf:type npg:Subject
317 skos:Concept
318 rdfs:label G protein-coupled receptors
319 skos:altLabel G Protein Coupled Receptors
320 G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
321 GPCR
322 GPCRs
323 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
324 skos:definition G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins with seven membrane-spanning helices. Upon binding to a ligand – which can range from small molecules like cyclic AMP to peptides and large proteins – GPCRs undergo a conformational change that activates heterotrimeric G proteins (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins), which are important for transmitting the extracellular, ligand signal to the cell interior.
325 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
326 skos:prefLabel G protein-coupled receptors
327 sg:ontologies/subjects/glycoproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
328 rdf:type npg:Subject
329 skos:Concept
330 rdfs:label Glycoproteins
331 skos:altLabel Glycoprotein
332 Neoglycoproteins
333 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
334 skos:definition Glycoproteins are glycoconjugates of proteins, generated by glycosylation. Generally, the carbohydrate chain is long, linking numerous monosaccharides by either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation, named according to the amino acid atom to which the carbohydrate chain is attached. Glycoproteins are involved in nearly all biological processes.
335 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
336 skos:prefLabel Glycoproteins
337 sg:ontologies/subjects/gtp-binding-protein-regulators sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
338 rdf:type npg:Subject
339 skos:Concept
340 rdfs:label GTP-binding protein regulators
341 skos:altLabel G Protein Regulating Factors
342 G Protein Signaling Regulators
343 G-Protein Regulating Factors
344 G-Protein Signaling Regulators
345 GTP Binding Protein Regulators
346 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
347 skos:definition GTP-binding protein regulators are proteins that regulate the function of small G proteins (heterotrimeric guanine nucelotide-binding peripheral membrane proteins involved in signal transduction). These include GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that accelerate GTP hydrolysis, guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) that prevent GDP dissociation, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that facilitate exchange of GDP for GTP.
348 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
349 skos:prefLabel GTP-binding protein regulators
350 sg:ontologies/subjects/integrins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
351 rdf:type npg:Subject
352 skos:Concept
353 rdfs:label Integrins
354 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-adhesion
355 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
356 skos:definition Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix or to other cells via interactions with proteins such as fibronectin and collagen. Integrins also transmit signals from outside to inside the cell by regulating receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Integrins are heterodimers of different α- and β-subunits.
357 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
358 skos:prefLabel Integrins
359 sg:ontologies/subjects/intracellular-signalling-peptides-and-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
360 rdf:type npg:Subject
361 skos:Concept
362 rdfs:label Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins
363 skos:altLabel Intracellular Signaling Peptides
364 Intracellular Signaling Proteins
365 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
366 skos:definition Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins are peptides and proteins involved in transmission of signals (signal transduction) across the membrane of cells. Signals in the form of second messengers, hormones, proteins and other biological molecules are recognized by cell surface receptors, which mediate their responses to other intracellular signalling peptides and proteins, such as transcription factors.
367 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
368 skos:prefLabel Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins
369 sg:ontologies/subjects/lectins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
370 rdf:type npg:Subject
371 skos:Concept
372 rdfs:label Lectins
373 skos:altLabel Animal Lectins
374 Isolectin
375 Isolectins
376 Lectin
377 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
378 skos:definition Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that bind either a soluble carbohydrate or the carbohydrate portion of a glycoconjugate. Lectins are present in both plants and animals and play roles in various biological processes, including the immune system, cell adhesion and glycoprotein metabolism.
379 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
380 skos:prefLabel Lectins
381 sg:ontologies/subjects/lipoproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
382 rdf:type npg:Subject
383 skos:Concept
384 rdfs:label Lipoproteins
385 skos:altLabel Circulating Lipoproteins
386 Lipoprotein
387 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/lipids
388 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
389 skos:definition Lipoproteins are large spherical complexes that consist of lipids and proteins. The hydrophobic core consists of triglycerides and a hydrophobic form of cholesterol (cholesteryl esters) is surrounded by a hydrophilic monolayer of free cholesterol, phospholipids and apoproteins. Lipoproteins function in transporting lipids contained within through the bloodstream.
390 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
391 skos:prefLabel Lipoproteins
392 sg:ontologies/subjects/membrane-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
393 rdf:type npg:Subject
394 skos:Concept
395 rdfs:label Membrane proteins
396 skos:altLabel Cell Membrane Proteins
397 Cell Surface Proteins
398 Integral Membrane Protein
399 Integral Membrane Proteins
400 Membrane Associated Proteins
401 Membrane Protein
402 Membrane-Associated Proteins
403 Surface Proteins
404 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
405 skos:definition Membrane proteins are proteins found in cell membranes, either at the surface or on intracellular organelles. Integral membrane proteins such as receptors and ion channels span the membrane. Peripheral membrane proteins, for example some signalling proteins, are tethered by an anchor, via a fatty acid, prenyl group, glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) or a hydrophobic protein patch.
406 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
407 skos:prefLabel Membrane proteins
408 sg:ontologies/subjects/metalloproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
409 rdf:type npg:Subject
410 skos:Concept
411 rdfs:label Metalloproteins
412 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/bioinorganic-chemistry
413 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
414 skos:definition Metalloproteins are proteins bound by at least one metal ion. Metal ions are usually coordinated by four sites consisting of the protein’s nitrogen, sulphur and/or oxygen atoms. In metalloenzymes, one of the coordination sites is labile. The chemistry of metals allows for a broader set of reactions, for instance as in redox reactions.
415 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
416 skos:prefLabel Metalloproteins
417 sg:ontologies/subjects/methylases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
418 rdf:type npg:Subject
419 skos:Concept
420 rdfs:label Methylases
421 skos:altLabel Methyltransferases
422 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
423 skos:definition Methylases are transfer enzymes that catalyze transfer of a methyl group (CH3 or Me) – termed methylation – from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule.
424 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
425 skos:prefLabel Methylases
426 sg:ontologies/subjects/mitochondrial-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
427 rdf:type npg:Subject
428 skos:Concept
429 rdfs:label Mitochondrial proteins
430 skos:altLabel Mitochondrial Protein
431 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
432 skos:definition Mitochondrial proteins are proteins that reside within the mitochondria of cells, including within the cristae of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial proteins are generally involved in mitochondrial function, including carrying out reactions of the electron transport chain. Mitochondrial proteins are derived either from genes encoded by the nuclear genome, or by DNA contained within mitochondria.
433 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
434 skos:prefLabel Mitochondrial proteins
435 sg:ontologies/subjects/nuclear-receptors sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
436 rdf:type npg:Subject
437 skos:Concept
438 rdfs:label Nuclear receptors
439 skos:altLabel Cytoplasmic Hormone Receptors
440 Cytoplasmic Receptors
441 Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
442 Cytosol and Nuclear Receptors
443 Cytosolic and Nuclear Receptors
444 Intracellular Membrane Receptors
445 Nuclear Hormone Receptors
446 Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Receptors
447 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cell-signalling
448 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
449 skos:definition Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that recognize steroid hormones (such as the gonadal hormones), thyroid hormones, retinoic acid and related molecules, as well as diverse products of lipid metabolism, such as fatty acids and prostaglandins. Nuclear receptors regulate gene expression upon ligand-induced transport into the nucleus of the cell.
450 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
451 skos:prefLabel Nuclear receptors
452 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
453 rdf:type npg:Subject
454 skos:Concept
455 rdfs:label Nucleases
456 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
457 skos:definition Nucleases are hydrolytic enzymes (hydrolases) that cleave the phosphodiester bond between nucleotides within nucleic acids, either within the nucleic acid chain (as in endonucleases) or from the end of the chain (as in exonucleases).
458 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
459 skos:prefLabel Nucleases
460 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleoproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
461 rdf:type npg:Subject
462 skos:Concept
463 rdfs:label Nucleoproteins
464 skos:altLabel Nucleoprotein
465 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
466 skos:definition Nucleoproteins are proteins that are associated with nucleic acids. They can serve functional roles as enzymes, for example, telomerase in modifying the nucleic acid, or structural ones, as with histones in packaging chromatin.
467 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
468 skos:prefLabel Nucleoproteins
469 sg:ontologies/subjects/nucleotide-binding-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
470 rdf:type npg:Subject
471 skos:Concept
472 rdfs:label Nucleotide-binding proteins
473 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
474 skos:definition Nucleotide-binding proteins are proteins that bind to nucleotides. For example, kinases bind adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and G proteins bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Other nucleotide-binding proteins bind nucleotides such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP).
475 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
476 skos:prefLabel Nucleotide-binding proteins
477 sg:ontologies/subjects/oncogene-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
478 rdf:type npg:Subject
479 skos:Concept
480 rdfs:label Oncogene proteins
481 skos:altLabel Oncogene Product
482 Oncogene Products
483 Oncogene Protein
484 Oncoproteins
485 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
486 skos:definition Oncogene proteins are proteins encoded by oncogenes (dysregulated or activated genes) and have a potential to cause cancer. Transcription factors, kinases and growth factors are considered oncogene proteins as they are generically involved in signalling systems leading to cell growth, survival, differentiation and programmed cell death (apoptosis).
487 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
488 skos:prefLabel Oncogene proteins
489 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphoproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
490 rdf:type npg:Subject
491 skos:Concept
492 rdfs:label Phosphoproteins
493 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
494 skos:definition Phosphoproteins are proteins that are phosphorylated, usually by kinases. They may be part of signal transduction cascades in which one kinase phosphorylates one kinase (making it a phosphoprotein) or multiple kinases, to amplify and propagate a cellular signal.
495 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
496 skos:prefLabel Phosphoproteins
497 sg:ontologies/subjects/phosphorylases sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
498 rdf:type npg:Subject
499 skos:Concept
500 rdfs:label Phosphorylases
501 skos:altLabel Glucan Phosphorylase
502 Phosphorylase
503 alpha-Glucan Phosphorylases
504 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
505 skos:definition Phosphorylases are enzymes that catalyze phosphorolysis, which is analogous to hydrolysis. Phosphorylases catalyze reactions in which an inorganic phosphate group is transferred to an acceptor molecule.
506 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
507 skos:prefLabel Phosphorylases
508 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteome sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
509 rdf:type npg:Subject
510 skos:Concept
511 rdfs:label Proteome
512 skos:altLabel Proteomes
513 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
514 skos:definition The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced by an organism or system and encoded by the full genome. A proteome may refer to the complement of proteins of a specific cell type (cellular proteome) or a subcellular system, as in a viral proteome or a nuclear proteome.
515 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
516 skos:prefLabel Proteome
517 sg:ontologies/subjects/ribosomal-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
518 rdf:type npg:Subject
519 skos:Concept
520 rdfs:label Ribosomal proteins
521 skos:altLabel Ribosomal Protein
522 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
523 skos:definition Ribosomal proteins are proteins that constitute ribosomes. Ribosomal proteins may be structurally important within the ribosome, for instance in interacting with the RNA component (rRNA), and may also function directly in translating mRNA into protein, which is the main function of ribosomes.
524 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
525 skos:prefLabel Ribosomal proteins
526 sg:ontologies/subjects/rna-binding-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
527 rdf:type npg:Subject
528 skos:Concept
529 rdfs:label RNA-binding proteins
530 skos:altLabel Double Stranded RNA Binding Proteins
531 Double-Stranded RNA-Binding Proteins
532 RNA Binding Protein
533 RNA Binding Proteins
534 RNA binding protein
535 RNA binding proteins
536 RNA-Binding Protein
537 RNA-binding protein
538 ds RNA-Binding Proteins
539 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
540 skos:definition RNA-binding proteins are proteins that bind to ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules, are generally found in the cytoplasm and nucleus, and are important in forming ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). One type of RNP, hnRNPs (heteronuclear proteins), are important in splicing of mRNA (messenger RNA), polyadenylation, stabilization, localization and translation.
541 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
542 skos:prefLabel RNA-binding proteins
543 sg:ontologies/subjects/scleroproteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
544 rdf:type npg:Subject
545 skos:Concept
546 rdfs:label Scleroproteins
547 skos:altLabel Fibrous Proteins
548 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
549 skos:definition Scleroproteins are proteins that form long rod-like filaments, which generally serve as a storage unit or in a structural capacity, as in collagen. Because of the filamentous nature of scleroprotein assemblies, they are insoluble in aqueous solutions and prone to aggregation.
550 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
551 skos:prefLabel Scleroproteins
552 sg:ontologies/subjects/selenium-binding-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
553 rdf:type npg:Subject
554 skos:Concept
555 rdfs:label Selenium-binding proteins
556 skos:altLabel Se Binding Proteins
557 Se-Binding Proteins
558 Selenium Binding Proteins
559 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
560 skos:definition Selenium-binding proteins are proteins that bind to the element selenium (Se, atomic number 34). Some selenium-binding proteins help selenium to mediate its anti-carcinogenic properties. Selenium-binding proteins are distinct from selenoproteins whose amino acid sequences contain a selenium-modified cysteine (Se-cys)
561 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
562 skos:prefLabel Selenium-binding proteins
563 sg:ontologies/subjects/sumoylated-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
564 rdf:type npg:Subject
565 skos:Concept
566 rdfs:label Sumoylated proteins
567 skos:altLabel SUMO
568 SUMO protein
569 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
570 skos:definition Sumoylated proteins are proteins modified post-translationally with small (~12 kDa) ubiquitin-like proteins called SUMOs. Sumoylated proteins are involved in various cellular processes, such as nucleocytoplasmic transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle proteins.
571 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
572 skos:prefLabel Sumoylated proteins
573 sg:ontologies/subjects/thioredoxins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
574 rdf:type npg:Subject
575 skos:Concept
576 rdfs:label Thioredoxins
577 skos:altLabel Thioredoxin
578 Thioredoxin 1
579 Thioredoxin 2
580 Thioredoxin-1
581 Thioredoxin-2
582 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
583 skos:definition Thioredoxins are small enzymes that play a role in cellular redox systems by facilitating reduction of other proteins via their dithiol-disulphide active site. Thioredoxins act as antioxidants that reduce oxidative stress and other environmental stresses, protect proteins from oxidative aggregation and inactivation to promote protein folding, regulate apoptosis via denitrosylation, and modulate inflammation.
584 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
585 skos:prefLabel Thioredoxins
586 sg:ontologies/subjects/transcription-factors sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
587 rdf:type npg:Subject
588 skos:Concept
589 rdfs:label Transcription factors
590 skos:altLabel Transcription Factor
591 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
592 skos:definition Transcription factors are proteins that bind to DNA to regulate gene expression via transcription: the process by which the genetic code generates mRNAs or small RNAs. Transcription factors operate by various methods, for example, by modulating the binding of RNA polymerase or by recruiting coactivator or corepressor proteins to the DNA.
593 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
594 skos:prefLabel Transcription factors
595 sg:ontologies/subjects/tumour-suppressor-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
596 rdf:type npg:Subject
597 skos:Concept
598 rdfs:label Tumour-suppressor proteins
599 skos:altLabel Growth Suppressor Proteins
600 Metastasis Suppressor Proteins
601 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/cancer
602 sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
603 skos:definition Tumour-suppressor proteins act to alleviate the potential for cancer and tumour formation by modulating cell growth either through negative regulation of the cell cycle or by promoting apoptosis. Mutation or dysregulation of tumour-suppressor proteins can lead to unregulated cell growth and tumour development.
604 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
605 skos:prefLabel Tumour-suppressor proteins
606 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
607 rdf:type npg:Subject
608 skos:Concept
609 rdfs:label Ubiquitins
610 skos:altLabel Ubiquitin Like Proteins
611 Ubiquitin-Like Proteins
612 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
613 skos:definition Ubiquitins are small proteins (~8 kDa) that post-translationally modify proteins on lysine residues through formation of an isopeptide bond between the carboxylic acid group of the ubiquitin's glycine and the epsilon amino group of the substrate's lysine.
614 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
615 skos:prefLabel Ubiquitins
616 sg:ontologies/subjects/ubiquitylated-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
617 rdf:type npg:Subject
618 skos:Concept
619 rdfs:label Ubiquitylated proteins
620 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
621 skos:definition Ubiquitylated proteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with one or more ubiquitin molecule, usually in a poly-ubiquitin chain on the substrate lysine residues. Ubiquitylation can target proteins for degradation via the proteasome, alter the subcellular localization of a protein or modulate protein–protein interactions.
622 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
623 skos:prefLabel Ubiquitylated proteins
624 sg:ontologies/subjects/viral-proteins sgo:sdDataset onto_subjects
625 rdf:type npg:Subject
626 skos:Concept
627 rdfs:label Viral proteins
628 skos:altLabel Viral Gene Products
629 Viral Gene Proteins
630 skos:broader sg:ontologies/subjects/proteins
631 skos:definition Viral proteins are proteins generated by a virus. As viruses hijack much of their host's cellular machinery to support their life cycle, they encode very few of their own genes; viral proteins are therefore generally structural components, for the viral envelope and capsid. Non-structural proteins and regulatory or accessory proteins can also be viral proteins.
632 skos:inScheme sg:ontologies/subjects/
633 skos:prefLabel Viral proteins
634 skos:Concept sgo:sdDataset for_codes
635 rdf:type rdfs:Class
636 rdfs:Resource
637 rdfs:subClassOf rdfs:Resource
638 skos:Concept
 




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